While the modern state of Russia was formed 1547, many historians consider the various monarchies that existed prior to 1547 when discussing a Russian "monarchy". These include the Princes of Novgorod, the Grand Princes of Kiev, the Grand Princes of Vladimir, and the Grand Princes of Moscow. It was under the Grand Princes of Moscow that a true Russian state was unified in 1547, with Ivan IV the Terrible proclaiming himself the Tsar of all the Russias. Peter the Great proclaimed Russia an empire in 1721, and successfully made Russia into a European power. The monarchy was overthrown during the Russian Revolution in 1917, and the reigning emperor, Nicholas II and his immediate family were executed in 1918. While there are a number of claimant…Read more >
The First Lady of the United States is the official hostess of the White House, with ultimate responsibility for overseeing protocol at all White House functions. (In alternate history timelines where the seat of the Presidency is not the White House, we can assume that the First Lady performs the same function wherever the President does sit.) In recent years, it has also become customary for the First Lady to advocate on behalf of social initiatives, usually of a politically non-controversial nature. The position of First Lady is unpaid, and tradition prohibits a First Lady from being gainfully employed while she holds the post, for fear of an employer or contractor attempting to use her salary to influence the President.
Throughout America…Read more >
The Monarchy of England is generally traced back to Alfred the Great (849-899), the king of Wessex, one of several kingdoms in what is now called England. After asserting Wessex's dominance over rival kingdom Mercia, Alfred proclaimed himself "King of the English". His grandson, Æthelstan, was the first monarch to reign over a unified England. However, he retained the title "King of the English".
In 1066, William, Duke of Normandy successfully conquered the entirety of England. William is generally considered to have been the first monarch to rule as "King of England" as opposed to "King of the English". In the centuries that followed, the role of the monarchy was defined and expanded. In 1542, Henry VIII was proclaimed King of Ireland. In 16…Read more >
The head of state of Germany has changed at various times since the unification of the German Empire in 1871. The first head of state was the Emperor (Kaiser). After the Germany Empire collapse, the Weimar Republic was formed, with the Reichspräsident ("President of Germany" in English) replacing the emperor as the German head of state. While the intent was that the presidency would share power with the chancellor and the Reichstag, the instability of the Republic resulted in a very powerful presidency.
In 1933, Adolf Hitler attained the office of chancellor (the head of government). Upon the death of President Paul von Hindenburg in 1934, Hitler also assumed the office of head of state, changing the title from "President" to "Führer". This ti…Read more >
Throughout the majority of its history, France has been a monarchy and is generally considered to have begun with the Frankish Kingdom in 486. In 1792, Louis XVI was overthrown, and the First Republic was established. Executive authority shifted to a number of bodies throughout the First Republic, finally ending in the Consulate, which fell to the First Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte (who'd previously become Consul for Life) in 1804. Napoleon was overthrown in 1814, and made an ultimately unsuccessful bid to regain the crown the following year. In the meantime, the House of Bourbon was restored.
The Bourbon Restoration lasted until the so-called July Monarchy of 1830, when Louis-Phillipe I displaced Charles X and proclaimed himself "Monarch o…Read more >