This page lists fictional heads of state and/or government who are the referenced incumbent but unnamed office-holders, in the works of Harry Turtledove, OR are posthumously referenced, but their role is relevant to understanding the plot or background of a given work. Usually the reference is relegated to a few sentences.
Sultan of the Ottoman EmpireEdit
In 1852, Jeremiah Stafford tells Leland Newton that the Grand Turk (common slang for the Ottoman Sultan) has been murdering Armenians "for sport" without suffering consequences. This behavior could hardly be any further from the nature of Abdülmecid I, who reigned 1839-1861 in OTL. Abdülmecid was one of the most enlightened monarchs in the Empire's history, famously passing laws ensuring tolerance for non-Muslims, civil rights, and the beginning of gradual emancipation of slaves. Armenians in Turkey never suffered any particular persecution until the close of the 19th century, with the Genocide devastating their people only in the 1910s. Apparently, in the Atlantis timeline, a butterfly effect put a much crueler Sultan on the throne in the 1850s.
Stafford follows his point about the Ottoman Sultan (see above) by suggesting that the Russian Czar is doing the same thing to Jews. As with the former example, this suggests a ruler other than OTL's Nicholas I, who reigned 1825-1855. While quite autocratic and restrictive of freedom of the press, Nicholas never singled out any specific minority group for persecution, and his reign saw hardly any anti-Semitic violence. In fact, while isolated incidents of violence toward Jews occurred in the far fringes of the Empire before and after Nicholas' reign, the archetypical "pogrom" did not take its quintessential form until the 1880s, during the reign of his grandson Alexander III.
King and Prime Minister of the Confederated ProvincesEdit
The Confederated Provinces is an analog of the United States, but is a constitutional monarchy, rather than a republic, with a king and a prime minister. Both are mentioned in passing by their titles only. The king is described as a figurehead, and the prime minister is described as having the real power.
The Empire of Aztecia is an analog of Mexico. Towards the end of the novel, the reigning emperor has his entire cabinet put to death.
These two figures are mentioned in passing. The Prime Minister survived an assassination attempt in the 2090s.
The Emperor of Austria-HungaryEdit
Mentioned in passing; presumably, the German Empire restored this monarchy which had been overthrown in 1889.
Mentioned as being the focal point of a plot to challenge the German Empire by setting up a Chinese one to rival it. 
The King of EnglandEdit
The Kaiser of the German EmpireEdit
In the late 21st Century, this unnamed Kaiser is the de facto ruler of most of the world.
The Sultan of the Ottoman EmpireEdit
An unnamed Algarvian nobleman agreed to serve as King of West Algarve, a position with limited real power; he was in fact a puppet of western Algarve's Unkerlanter conquerors. At least two Algarvian nobles, including Sabrino, had refused to take the office before Unkerlanter officials found a collaborator pliable enough to accept the crown on Unkerlanter terms.
The Prime Minister of CaliforniaEdit
Mentioned in passing a man with a fondness for casual fashion.
The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Italian People's RepublicEdit
Mentioned several times throughout the novel, he rules the country where most of the plot takes place.
Jack Spivey relates that "that noisy fella on the far side of the ocean" made the fylfot his symbol, but the Canon City Fylfots were already using it as theirs, and were not about to let go of it for him or anybody else. This is a clear analog of Adolf Hitler.
Spivey also relates that some king, or maybe he was just a minister, way on the other side of the ocean, promised to make the trains run on time, but very few people believed he could do this. This refers to a famous Benito Mussolini quote which Turtledove has referenced in other works.
Soviet ruling councilEdit
In 1381, toward the end of the decades-long outbreak of the Great Black Deaths which devastated northern Europe, the Pope and the King of France ordered the death on the wheel of a heretical cult leader named Henri. The day after Henri's death, these two heads of state, while relishing in their triumph, were killed in a freak accident involving the structural collapse of a church in which they were praying. Other important higher-ups were killed in the same disaster.
See main article for information on his role in the story.
Duce of the Italian EmpireEdit
Although King Umberto is the nominal ruler, the Duce wields the actual power in Italy. He expresses his condolences upon the death of Kurt Haldweim, calling him a man of power and of peace. He is initially supportive of Heinz Buckliger.
The Emperor of Manchukuo expresses sympathy for the German people upon the death of Haldweim, along with the Japanese Emperor.
The Caudillo of Spain describes Kurt Haldweim as a man of world-historical proportions.
This monarch rules the kingdom which split off from the Soviet Union sometime in the 21st or 22nd century.
Poglavnik is the title used by the ruler of Fascist Croatia, where most of the story takes place. Ante Pavelić is acknowledged as the first Poglavink, implying that a different person holds the office by 1979, but this person is not described.
The Galactic Emperor and EmpressEdit
Mentioned in passing, with the implication that they are absolute monarchs. There is the further implication from the text that they are not as popular as they might like to be, but that it is not safe to express disapproval of their government.
The Emperor of Mexico during the Great WarEdit
The name of the Emperor who ruled Mexico during the Great War is never given. It is known that Mexico was ruled by the Hapsburgs at the time. In other parts of the series, we learn that Maximilian I and Maximilian II were emperors sometime before the Great War, and that Maximilian III and Francisco José II ruled after it. Therefore, the moderators have taken a calculated leap of faith in referring to him by the logical name Francisco José I elsewhere in this wiki.
The Premier of QuebecEdit
No leader of the Republic of Quebec is ever identified by name. In The Center Cannot Hold, one unnamed Quebecois leader is briefly seen at the funeral of former US President Theodore Roosevelt. It is from this scene that we know that the title of the highest official in the Quebecois government is Premier.
The Prime Minister is a man, but is not otherwise described. He delivers a speech promising an eye for an eye after Iran apparently launches a nuclear attack on Tel Aviv. This results in a nuclear counter-strike on Tehran and the Iranian holy city of Qom.
The President of the United StatesEdit
Aside from the fact that the President is a man and a Democrat in Eruption, he is not described. As the series spans more than eight years, there is probably a silent transition in the office at some point.
The Vice President of the United StatesEdit
An unnamed Vice President appears in All Fall Down as the commencement speaker at Marshall Ferguson's graduation from University of California, Santa Barbara. This person shares a few characteristics with the then-Vice President, Joe Biden.
No sooner has Gilmer returned from his negotiations with Yokim Sarns than he learns that a rival warlord is gathering a fleet of warships within ten parsecs of Trantor in preparation for an attack on the planet. While formal legal claims of sovereignty made by warlords such as Gilmer and his rival would certainly be dubious, the state of affairs in the inner galaxy at the time of the story does appear to suggest that such warlords are the highest political authorities in the region.
The reigning Tsar of Russia is referenced throughout the novel, but never named.
An unnamed female Prime Minister governs Britain in 1995, and makes a statement after the The Two Georges painting is stolen. This wiki previously endorsed the popular consensus identifying her as Margaret Thatcher, but has since deemed this too speculative.
Maleinos II's PredecessorsEdit
It is mentioned a number of times by various characters that Rhavas's grandmother was Maleinos II's grandfather's sister and that the grandfather was an usurper the way Stylianos was. Neither the grandfather nor the Avtokrator he overthrew or his son who presumably was Maleinos II's immediate predecessor were named. While it is likely that either his father or grandfather were named Maleinos, it is possible he was named after a previous Avtokrator that one, the other, or both admired. Therefore, we have one, two or even three unnamed Avtokrators immediately preceding Maleinos II.
King(s) of Kings of MakuranEdit
Throughout the trilogy of books detailing the ascension and emperorship of Krispos, the King of Kings of Makuran has offstage involvement in various plot points. It is not known whether one King of Kings ruled Makuran throughout the period of time covered by the trilogy, or whether there were different kings at different points in the story. No names are ever provided in any of the relevant scenes. 
One of the leaders of the few remaining free countries at the time of the story, El Presidente presides over a rump state located around the Andes Mountains. United States President Harris Moffatt III spoke to El Presidente by phone on occasion.
The Emperor who ruled the Race in the early 1920s, and who formally ordered Fleetlord Atvar to conquer Tosev 3, is mentioned in Homeward Bound, but not by name. It is said that he was more interested in form and ceremony than in the substance of policy, a marked difference from the incumbent at the time of the novel, the 37th Emperor Risson. This emperor is referred to as "His Majesty's predecessor" and is implied, though not explicitly stated, to have been Risson's immediate predecessor. The Conquest Fleet celebrated this emperor's hatching day as a holiday during their war against the Big Five. Due to the difference in the amounts of time it took Earth and Home to complete orbits of their respective suns, this holiday would occur twice in one Tosevite year, to the confusion of many human observers such as Liu Han and Nieh Ho-Ting.
- ↑ Liberating Atlantis, p. 213.
- ↑ Ibid.
- ↑ The Disunited States of America, pg. 278.
- ↑ Curious Notions, pg. 43.
- ↑ Ibid.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 185.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 43.
- ↑ Ibid. pg. 43.
- ↑ Ibid.
- ↑ Out of the Darkness p 490
- ↑ The Disunited States of America, pg. 41.
- ↑ The House of Daniel, p. 187.
- ↑ Ibid., p. 93.
- ↑ Ibid., p. 93.
- ↑ In High Places, pg. 15.
- ↑ In the Presence of Mine Enemies, pg. 73.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 51.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 422.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 107.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 51.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 225.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 72.
- ↑ Ibid., p. 72.
- ↑ Ibid., p 71.
- ↑ Departures, p. 69, 82.
- ↑ Federations. 2009: Prime Books. p 95.
- ↑ Walk in Hell p 304
- ↑ The Center Cannot Hold p 37.
- ↑ Eruption, pg. 325-326.
- ↑ Ibid., e.g. pg. 54.
- ↑ All Fall Down, pgs. 12-14, HC.
- ↑ Greenberg, Martin ed. Foundation's Friends: Stories in Honor of Isaac Asimov. New York: Tor, 1989. p 91.
- ↑ The Two Georges, p. 320, HC.
- ↑ Krispos Rising, Krispos of Videssos, Krispos the Emperor (throughout)
- ↑ Homeward Bound p 231 et al
- ↑ Upsetting the Balance pp 482, 488.