This page lists fictional heads of state and/or government who are the referenced incumbent but unnamed office-holders, in the works of Harry Turtledove, OR are posthumously referenced, but their role is relevant to understanding the plot or background of a given work.  Usually the reference is relegated to a few sentences.  


Sultan of the Ottoman EmpireEdit

In 1852, Jeremiah Stafford tells Leland Newton that the Grand Turk (common slang for the Ottoman Sultan) has been murdering Armenians "for sport" without suffering consequences.[1] This behavior could hardly be any further from the nature of Abdülmecid I, who reigned 1839-1861 in OTL. Abdülmecid was one of the most enlightened monarchs in the Empire's history, famously passing laws ensuring tolerance for non-Muslims, civil rights, and the beginning of gradual emancipation of slaves. Armenians in Turkey never suffered any particular persecution until the close of the 19th century, with the Genocide devastating their people only in the 1910s. Apparently, in the Atlantis timeline, a butterfly effect put a much crueler Sultan on the throne in the 1850s.

Czar of RussiaEdit

Stafford follows his point about the Ottoman Sultan (see above) by suggesting that the Russian Czar is doing the same thing to Jews.[2] As with the former example, this suggests a ruler other than OTL's Nicholas I, who reigned 1825-1855. While quite autocratic and restrictive of freedom of the press, Nicholas never singled out any specific minority group for persecution, and his reign saw hardly any anti-Semitic violence. In fact, while isolated incidents of violence toward Jews occurred in the far fringes of the Empire before and after Nicholas' reign, the archetypical "pogrom" did not take its quintessential form until the 1880s, during the reign of his grandson Alexander III.

The Case of the Toxic Spell DumpEdit

King and Prime Minister of the Confederated ProvincesEdit

The Confederated Provinces is an analog of the United States, but is a constitutional monarchy, rather than a republic, with a king and a prime minister. Both are mentioned in passing by their titles only. The king is described as a figurehead, and the prime minister is described as having the real power.

Emperor of AzteciaEdit

The Empire of Aztecia is an analog of Mexico. Towards the end of the novel, the reigning emperor has his entire cabinet put to death.

Crosstime Traffic home timelineEdit

Shah and Prime Minister of IranEdit

These two figures are mentioned in passing. The Prime Minister survived an assassination attempt in the 2090s.[3]

Curious NotionsEdit

The Emperor of Austria-HungaryEdit

Mentioned in passing; presumably in power as a consequence of his country's alliance with Germany. [4]

The Emperor of BrazilEdit

Mentioned in passing; presumably, the German Empire restored this monarchy which had been overthrown in 1889.[5]

The Emperor of ChinaEdit

Mentioned as being the focal point of a plot to challenge the German Empire by setting up a Chinese one to rival it. [6]

The King of EnglandEdit

Mentioned in passing, it's unclear if he rules England or the United Kingdom.[7]

The Kaiser of the German EmpireEdit

In the late 21st Century, this unnamed Kaiser is the de facto ruler of most of the world.

The Sultan of the Ottoman EmpireEdit

Mentioned in passing; presumably still in power as a consequence of his country's alliance with Germany.[8]

The King of PortugalEdit

Mentioned in passing; presumably, the German Empire restored this monarchy which had been overthrown in 1910, four years before the break-point.[9]


The King of West AlgarveEdit

An unnamed Algarvian nobleman agreed to serve as King of West Algarve, a position with limited real power; he was in fact a puppet of western Algarve's Unkerlanter conquerors. At least two Algarvian nobles, including Sabrino, had refused to take the office before Unkerlanter officials found a collaborator pliable enough to accept the crown on Unkerlanter terms.[10]

The Disunited States of AmericaEdit

The Prime Minister of CaliforniaEdit

Mentioned in passing a man with a fondness for casual fashion.[11]

Ohio's LeaderEdit

Possibly a consul; despite the novel's main focus a war between Ohio and Virginia, we never learn this person's name or even gender.

The GladiatorEdit

The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Italian People's RepublicEdit

Mentioned several times throughout the novel, he rules the country where most of the plot takes place.

The House of DanielEdit

Hitler analogEdit

Jack Spivey relates that "that noisy fella on the far side of the ocean" made the fylfot his symbol, but the Canon City Fylfots were already using it as theirs, and were not about to let go of it for him or anybody else.[12] This is a clear analog of Adolf Hitler.

Mussolini analogEdit

Spivey also relates that some king, or maybe he was just a minister, way on the other side of the ocean, promised to make the trains run on time, but very few people believed he could do this. This refers to a famous Benito Mussolini quote which Turtledove has referenced in other works.

Russia's late CzarEdit

An analog of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia was killed as in OTL, but there is some debate as to just which group killed him.[13]

Soviet ruling councilEdit

In the 1930s, a group with a red flag rules over Russia. Some characters believe this council to be vampiric in nature, but this is never confirmed.[14]

In High PlacesEdit

The Pope and the King of FranceEdit

In 1381, toward the end of the decades-long outbreak of the Great Black Deaths which devastated northern Europe, the Pope and the King of France ordered the death on the wheel of a heretical cult leader named Henri. The day after Henri's death, these two heads of state, while relishing in their triumph, were killed in a freak accident involving the structural collapse of a church in which they were praying. Other important higher-ups were killed in the same disaster.[15]

In the Presence of Mine EnemiesEdit

The Perón of ArgentinaEdit

In 2010, the Perón describes Führer Kurt Haldweim as a model for all rulers aspiring to greatness. [16]

The King of BulgariaEdit

In 2010, the King of Bulgaria visits the Poglavnik of Croatia on an official state visit. Video footage of the two men embracing is shown on the Seven O'clock News. [17]

The Poglavnik of CroatiaEdit

See main article for information on his role in the story.

The Premier of FranceEdit

Joins with other critics of the 2011 Putsch "in principle".[18]

Duce of the Italian EmpireEdit

Although King Umberto is the nominal ruler, the Duce wields the actual power in Italy.[19] He expresses his condolences upon the death of Kurt Haldweim, calling him a man of power and of peace.[20] He is initially supportive of Heinz Buckliger.[21]

Emperor of JapanEdit

The Emperor of Japan expresses sympathy for the German people upon the death of Kurt Haldweim.[22]

Emperor of ManchukuoEdit

The Emperor of Manchukuo expresses sympathy for the German people upon the death of Haldweim, along with the Japanese Emperor.[23]

Caudillo of SpainEdit

The Caudillo of Spain describes Kurt Haldweim as a man of world-historical proportions.[24]

"Islands in the Sea"Edit

King of the FranksEdit

Mentioned as ruling one of the more powerful independent Christian kingdoms remaining in Europe.[25]

"Les Mortes d'Arthur"Edit

Czar of SiberiaEdit

This monarch rules the kingdom which split off from the Soviet Union sometime in the 21st or 22nd century.

"Ready for the Fatherland"Edit

The Poglavnik of CroatiaEdit

Poglavnik is the title used by the ruler of Fascist Croatia, where most of the story takes place. Ante Pavelić is acknowledged as the first Poglavink, implying that a different person holds the office by 1979, but this person is not described.

"The Road Not Taken"Edit

President of the United StatesEdit

The President considers going to Los Angeles to meet the arriving Roxolans but ultimately doesn't. Nothing about this person is revealed.

"Someone Is Stealing the Great Throne Rooms of the Galaxy"Edit

The Galactic Emperor and EmpressEdit

Mentioned in passing, with the implication that they are absolute monarchs. There is the further implication from the text that they are not as popular as they might like to be, but that it is not safe to express disapproval of their government.[26]

Southern VictoryEdit

The Emperor of Mexico during the Great WarEdit

The name of the Emperor who ruled Mexico during the Great War is never given. It is known that Mexico was ruled by the Hapsburgs at the time.[27] In other parts of the series, we learn that Maximilian I and Maximilian II were emperors sometime before the Great War, and that Maximilian III and Francisco José II ruled after it. Therefore, the moderators have taken a calculated leap of faith in referring to him by the logical name Francisco José I elsewhere in this wiki.

The Premier of QuebecEdit

No leader of the Republic of Quebec is ever identified by name. In The Center Cannot Hold, one unnamed Quebecois leader is briefly seen at the funeral of former US President Theodore Roosevelt. It is from this scene that we know that the title of the highest official in the Quebecois government is Premier.[28]


The Prime Minister of IsraelEdit

The Prime Minister is a man, but is not otherwise described. He delivers a speech promising an eye for an eye after Iran apparently launches a nuclear attack on Tel Aviv. This results in a nuclear counter-strike on Tehran and the Iranian holy city of Qom.[29]

The President of the United StatesEdit

Aside from the fact that the President is a man and a Democrat in Eruption, he is not described.[30] As the series spans more than eight years, there is probably a silent transition in the office at some point.

The Vice President of the United StatesEdit

An unnamed Vice President appears in All Fall Down as the commencement speaker at Marshall Ferguson's graduation from University of California, Santa Barbara. This person shares a few characteristics with the then-Vice President, Joe Biden.[31]

"Trantor Falls"Edit

Gilmer's RivalEdit

No sooner has Gilmer returned from his negotiations with Yokim Sarns than he learns that a rival warlord is gathering a fleet of warships within ten parsecs of Trantor in preparation for an attack on the planet. While formal legal claims of sovereignty made by warlords such as Gilmer and his rival would certainly be dubious, the state of affairs in the inner galaxy at the time of the story does appear to suggest that such warlords are the highest political authorities in the region.[32]

The Two GeorgesEdit

The Emperor of AustriaEdit

The Austrian Empire is ruled by the House of Hapsburg.[33] Its head of state is presumably the Emperor, but he is not named or described.

The Tsar of RussiaEdit

The reigning Tsar of Russia is referenced throughout the novel, but never named. 

The Prime Minister of BritainEdit

An unnamed female Prime Minister governs Britain in 1995, and makes a statement after the The Two Georges painting is stolen. This wiki previously endorsed the popular consensus identifying her as Margaret Thatcher, but has since deemed this too speculative.

Videssos SeriesEdit

Maleinos II's PredecessorsEdit

It is mentioned a number of times by various characters that Rhavas's grandmother was Maleinos II's grandfather's sister and that the grandfather was an usurper the way Stylianos was. Neither the grandfather nor the Avtokrator he overthrew or his son who presumably was Maleinos II's immediate predecessor were named. While it is likely that either his father or grandfather were named Maleinos, it is possible he was named after a previous Avtokrator that one, the other, or both admired. Therefore, we have one, two or even three unnamed Avtokrators immediately preceding Maleinos II.

King(s) of Kings of MakuranEdit

Throughout the trilogy of books detailing the ascension and emperorship of Krispos, the King of Kings of Makuran has offstage involvement in various plot points. It is not known whether one King of Kings ruled Makuran throughout the period of time covered by the trilogy, or whether there were different kings at different points in the story. No names are ever provided in any of the relevant scenes. [34]


The President of PeruEdit

One of the leaders of the few remaining free countries at the time of the story, El Presidente presides over a rump state located around the Andes Mountains. United States President Harris Moffatt III spoke to El Presidente by phone on occasion.


Risson's predecessor as the Emperor of the RaceEdit

The Emperor who ruled the Race in the early 1920s, and who formally ordered Fleetlord Atvar to conquer Tosev 3, is mentioned in Homeward Bound, but not by name. It is said that he was more interested in form and ceremony than in the substance of policy, a marked difference from the incumbent at the time of the novel, the 37th Emperor Risson. This emperor is referred to as "His Majesty's predecessor" and is implied, though not explicitly stated, to have been Risson's immediate predecessor.[35] The Conquest Fleet celebrated this emperor's hatching day as a holiday during their war against the Big Five. Due to the difference in the amounts of time it took Earth and Home to complete orbits of their respective suns, this holiday would occur twice in one Tosevite year, to the confusion of many human observers such as Liu Han and Nieh Ho-Ting.[36]


  1. Liberating Atlantis, p. 213.
  2. Ibid.
  3. The Disunited States of America, pg. 278.
  4. Curious Notions, pg. 43.
  5. Ibid.
  6. Ibid., pg. 185.
  7. Ibid., pg. 43.
  8. Ibid. pg. 43.
  9. Ibid.
  10. Out of the Darkness p 490
  11. The Disunited States of America, pg. 41.
  12. The House of Daniel, p. 187.
  13. Ibid., p. 93.
  14. Ibid., p. 93.
  15. In High Places, pg. 15.
  16. In the Presence of Mine Enemies, pg. 73.
  17. Ibid., pg. 51.
  18. Ibid., pg. 422.
  19. Ibid., pg. 107.
  20. Ibid., pg. 51.
  21. Ibid., pg. 225.
  22. Ibid., pg. 72.
  23. Ibid., p. 72.
  24. Ibid., p 71.
  25. Departures, p. 69, 82.
  26. Federations. 2009: Prime Books. p 95.
  27. Walk in Hell p 304
  28. The Center Cannot Hold p 37.
  29. Eruption, pg. 325-326.
  30. Ibid., e.g. pg. 54.
  31. All Fall Down, pgs. 12-14, HC.
  32. Greenberg, Martin ed. Foundation's Friends: Stories in Honor of Isaac Asimov. New York: Tor, 1989. p 91.
  33. The Two Georges, p. 320, HC.
  34. Krispos Rising, Krispos of Videssos, Krispos the Emperor (throughout)
  35. Homeward Bound p 231 et al
  36. Upsetting the Balance pp 482, 488.

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