Trajan (18 September AD 53 – 8 August 117) was the 13th Emperor of Rome, reigning from 98 to 117 AD. Born in Spain, he was the first Emperor born outside of Italy. His reign saw the empire at its greatest territorial extent after conquests in the Empire of Parthia. He also initiated substantial public works projects. He was deified upon his death by the Senate. His reputation as a great emperor continues up until the present. He was the second of the emperors which 18th-century English historian Edward Gibbon deemed the "Five Good Emperors".
When Clodius Eprius was murdered in Vesunna, coins with the likeness of Trajan (among other emperors) were found in the dead man's villa. The local physician, Kleandros, already puzzled by the scene, realized that, even though Trajan had been dead some 30 years, the coins bearing his likeness were in pristine condition. He and the tesserariusGaius Tero, further noticed that these coins were all identical, an impossibility for hand-struck coins.