The Roman Empire, named for its capital city, was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. From the time of Augustus (who informally transitioned the Roman Republic into the Empire) to the Fall of the Western Empire, Rome dominated Western Eurasia and North Africa, and composed the majority of the region's population. At this territorial peak, the Roman Empire controlled approximately 5 900 000 km² (2,300,000 sq.mi.) of land surface. Rome's influence upon the culture, law, technology, arts, language, religion, government, military, and architecture of civilizations that followed continues to this day. In the immediate wake of the Empire's fall, its Eastern half, which had become a separate political entity in a schism, continued as the Byzantine Empire.
Renegade Crosstimers from the home timeline used this low-tech alternate to set-up an illegal crosstime slave trade. This group did business with other low-tech alternates where slavery was still permitted (such as an alternate where the Great Black Deaths wiped out 80% of the population of Europe) and raided other alternates to capture slaves.The crosstimers even engaged in a sort of "slavery tourism" wherein wealthy masochists from the Home timeline would pay for the experience of being a slave.
The scheme was found out after Annette Klein, a denizen of the Home timeline who'd been taken as a slave, was able to escape back to the Home timeline and alert the authorities.
In their time of imperial expansion, the Romans had wrecked Hierosolyma. In later centuries, however, Roman power disappeared, leaving the Philistinians and Moabites, who had been there long before the Romans, to fight over the city.
In about 30 CE, a pesky and vocal barbarian leader known "the Chieftain" to the Roman Empire, and the "Son of God" to his followers, instigated a destructive and short-lived rebellion in the Jewish regions. In response, the empire sent General Pontius Pilate to solve this problem. Pilate defeated the rebels and eventually captured the Chieftain and his second-in-command, the Rock, with the treacherous assistance of one of the Chieftain's disciples. With the Chieftain's death, his movement quickly withered away to nothing.
The Roman Empire was Monique Dutourd's specialty as a historical researcher. During the German rule of France, she self-censored her lectures to mask any criticism of Germans which could arise from discussing their nation's role in Roman history.
Following the Race-German War of 1965, France passed from the Greater German Reich to the Race's sphere of influence. Senior Researcher Ttomalss hired Dutourd to tutor him in Roman history, as he was interested in a time when governments on Earth resembled the government of the Race. Dutourd, while she could not complain about receiving this well-paying job, feared that Roman history might give Ttomalss ideas which would prove detrimental to human autonomy.