Claudius Ptolemaeus (AD 90 – 168), known in English as Ptolemy was a Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer and astrologer. He lived in Egypt under the Roman Empire, although he appears to have been of Greek descent.
Ptolemy was the author of several scientific treatises. The astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest set forth the concept of the geocentric universe: Earth is the center of the universe, with the Sun, the Moon, and the stars revolving around her.
This model was eventually adopted as doctrine by the Catholic Church.
In 17th century, when Galileo Galilei advocated the Copernican view that the Sun was the center of the solar system, the Church accused him of heresy.