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Seal Of The President Of The Unites States Of America
The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The role of the Executive Branch, of which the President is the head, is to enforce the national laws as stated in the Constitution or made by Congress. The office of president was established upon the ratification of the United States Constitution in 1788 and the first president, George Washington, took office in 1789.

The president serves as the chief executive and leader of the executive branch of the federal government. Article Two of the Constitution establishes the president as the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and enumerates powers specifically granted to the president, including the power to sign into law bills passed by both houses of Congress, to create a Cabinet of advisers, to grant pardons or reprieves, and, with the "advice and consent" of the Senate, to make treaties and appoint federal officers, ambassadors, and federal judges (including Justices of the Supreme Court). Article Two also defines a presidential term at four years.

In OTL, since 1951, presidents have been limited to two terms by the Twenty-second Amendment. There have been 45 presidencies, but only 44 individuals have held the office; Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms.

This article lists the known presidents found in the works of Harry Turtledove after the Point of Divergence in alternate history, or sitting presidents found in works of science fiction. Presidents who served before the POD of a given alternate history that are mentioned in passing do not need to be listed here - even if they are still alive during the story but do nothing during it. Stories set in the history of OTL may reference past presidents, the sitting president, or future presidents: unless the work is one of speculative fiction, those presidents do not belong here.

  Republican       Democratic       Socialist     

The Guns of the SouthEdit

With the Second American Revolution ending in 1864 in Confederate victory, incumbent U.S. President Abraham Lincoln was defeated by Horatio Seymour, in a highly contested election.


 
President Term Party Vice President
16 Abraham Lincoln Lincoln 1861-1865 Republican Hannibal Hamlin
17 Horatio Seymour Hseymour 1865-
Incumbent at novel's end, 1868
Democratic Clement Vallandigham

Joe SteeleEdit

In 1932, California Congressman Joe Steele won the Presidency, and proceeded to establish a dictatorship as he served an unprecedented five terms. He died in March, 1953, about six weeks into his sixth term, and was succeeded by Vice President John Nance Garner. However, through the machinations of former Steele loyalists, Garner was impeached, convicted, and removed from office. As a series of circumstances had removed all legal successors to the presidency, J. Edgar Hoover, the head of the Government Bureau of Investigation, immediately seized emergency executive powers, and moved into the White House Oval Office. He maintained the title of "Director", rather than adopting the office of President.


 
President Term Party Vice President
31 Herbert Hoover Hoover 1929-1933 Republican Charles Curtis
32 Joe Steele PresidentSteele 1933-1953 Democrat John Nance Garner
(Ascended to the presidency)
33 John Nance Garner Garner March-April(?), 1953 Democrat Office vacant

DirectorateEdit


 
Director Term Party
1 J. Edgar Hoover JEdgar 1953-
incumbent at novel's end
N/a

Literary commentEdit

The original "Joe Steele" story has a different ending. After Steele's death, a three-way conflict among President Garner, the Hammer, and J. Edgar Hoover claims the lives of both the Hammer and Garner, and Hoover takes over. It is not revealed what title he uses. This is in contrast to the novel's "legalistic" process of bloodlessly removing Garner from office and establishing the Directorate, but the end result seems to be the same.

"Must and Shall"Edit

President Abraham Lincoln was killed by a Confederate sharpshooter at Fort Stevens in 1864, during the Great Rebellion. Vice President Hannibal Hamlin ascended to the Presidency, and began a policy of retribution against the rebelling Southern states. Hamlin's successors continued this policy.


 
President Term Party Vice President
16 Abraham Lincoln Lincoln 1861-1864 Republican Hannibal Hamlin
(Ascended to the presidency)
17 Hannibal Hamlin Hamlin 1864-1869(?) Republican Vacant to 1865
18-?? Successors unnamed 1869-1942 Unknown Unknown

Southern VictoryEdit

For most of the history of the United States between the end of the War of Secession and the end of the Great War, the presidency was held by a member of the Democratic Party. This came in response to Abraham Lincoln's status as a Republican. Aside from Republican James G. Blaine, who served from 1881 to 1885, every president from 1865 to 1921 was a Democrat.

After U.S. victory in the Great War, Upton Sinclair became the first Socialist Party president. From there on, the Socialists met success over the next generation, winning five of the six elections between 1920 and 1940, though usually by very narrow margins. Neither party dominated the political cycle the way the Democrats had in the 19th century, as each party was able to capitalize on the failures of the other.

Following the Second Great War, Democrats won the 1944 election, electing Thomas Dewey to Powel House and also taking control of the House of Representatives.

It had been the custom since George Washington that the a president was only elected to two consecutive terms. Theodore Roosevelt ran for an unprecedented third term in 1920, but was defeated, thus leaving the custom intact.

Calvin Coolidge holds the distinction of being the only person elected to the office never to serve. After winning the 1932 election, Coolidge died of a heart attack the following January, just under a month before he could take the oath of office.

Al Smith was killed by a Confederate bombing raid in 1942, the first and only time a president was killed during war time.

Officially the Presidential residence was the White House in Washington, DC. During the Second Mexican War, Washington was evacuated by the Federal government due to its location within range of Confederate heavy artillery. The government relocated to Philadelphia where the President set up residence and office space in the Powel House. After the war, the Federal government remained in Philadelphia due to Washington's continued insecure position, and though Washington remained the capital of the US de jure, for all practical purposes, Philadelphia became the permanent capital and Powel House the permanent executive mansion. The White House was periodically used by the President for certain formal functions, such as inauguration ceremonies and state funerals.


 
President Term Party Vice President
16 Abraham Lincoln Lincoln 1861-1865 Republican Hannibal Hamlin
17-19(?) Unknown 1865-1877 Democrat Unknown
Unknown,
possibly 19 or 20
Samuel J. Tilden Tilden 1877-1881 Democratic Unknown
Unknown,
possibly 20 or 21
James G. Blaine JGBlaine 1881-1885 Republican Unknown
Unknown,
possibly 21 or 22(?)
Unknown 1885-1889 Democrat Unknown
Unknown,
possibly 22 or 23(?)
Alfred Thayer Mahan1 ATMahan 1889-1897 (?) Democrat Unknown
Unknown,
possibly 23 or 24(?)
Thomas B. Reed1 Reed 1897-1902 (?) Democrat Unknown
Unknown,
possibly 24 or 25-27(?)
Unknown 1902-1913 Democrat Unknown
28 Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt 1913-1921 Democrat Walter McKenna
29 Upton Sinclair UptonSinclair 1921-1929 Socialist Hosea Blackford
30 Hosea Blackford Nophoto 1929-1933 Socialist Hiram Johnson
312 Herbert Hoover Hoover 1933-1937 Democrat Office vacant
32 Al Smith Smith 1937-1942 Socialist Charles W. La Follette
(Ascended to the presidency)
33 Charles W. La Follette Nophoto 1942-1945 Socialist Office vacant
34 Thomas Dewey Thomas e dewey2 1945-
Incumbent at series' end
Democrat Harry Truman

Literary CommentEdit

In The Center Cannot Hold, Hosea Blackford is specified as the 30th person to serve as president. Mathematically, this implies that two presidents did not complete their terms at some point between the presidencies of Lincoln and Roosevelt for this to be possible.

The text does not identify all presidents between Lincoln and Roosevelt. Only Tilden, Blaine, Mahan, and Reed have been specifically identified as presidents in that time period (1865-1913). The exact terms of Mahan and Reed have not been revealed; circumstantial textual evidence supports Mahan serving from 1889-1897; some evidence supports Reed serving from 1897-1902, which would make him one of the two presidents to die in office.

  • 1=Presidents identified in the series canon, but their terms are not given.
  • 2=Calvin Coolidge was elected to be the 31st President, but died before taking office, so his entire term was served by his elected Vice President Hoover.

"Vilcabamba"Edit

With the arrival of the Krolp and their military domination of the planet, the United States was reduced to a rump state that ran among the Rocky Mountains and the Wasatch Range, combined with a small part of Canada. The offices of President of the United States and Prime Minister of Canada were combined in one person. The office also became hereditary.[1] The last duly elected president was Harris Moffatt I. His lineage continued to rule the rump U.S. until the presidency of his grandson Harris Moffatt III from the de facto capital of Grand Junction, Colorado. However, with the final defeat of the U.S., 50 years after the Krolp arrived, the presidency was abolished and Harris Moffatt III was forced into exile in the Krolp's North American capital of St. Louis.

Known Presidents:

WorldwarEdit

In the aftermath of the Race Invasion, the American Presidency saw two critical interruptions. The first came in 1944 with the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Vice President Henry Wallace had been killed the year before, when the Race's explosive-metal bomb destroyed Seattle while Wallace was visiting. Then-Secretary of State Cordell Hull succeeded Roosevelt per the Presidential Succession Act of 1886.

The second came in 1965 when President Earl Warren committed suicide after agreeing to allow the Race to destroy Indianapolis. This act was in response to Warren's secret attack on the Race's Colonization Fleet in 1962.

With Washington, DC destroyed by the Race in 1942, the capital was moved to Little Rock, Arkansas after the Peace of Cairo of 1944. The executive residence was the Gray House.


 
President Term Party Vice President
32 Franklin D. Roosevelt Franklin Roosevelt 1933-1944 Democrat Henry Wallace
January 20, 1941 - 1944
(Died in office)
33 Cordell Hull Hull 1944-1945? Democrat Vacant until 1945
34-?? Unknown 1945-1961 Unknown
? Earl Warren Earlwarren 1961-1965 Republican Harold Stassen
(Ascended to the presidency)
? Harold Stassen Stassen 1965-1969(?) Republican Vacant until 1969
? Unknown 1969-2021 Various Unknown
? Joyce Peterman Nophoto 2021-2029
(Dates estimated)
Unknown Unknown
? Unknown 2029-series' end, 2032 Unknown Unknown

Other PresidentsEdit

In addition to the above, Harry Turtledove has written several works of speculative fiction in which the presidency plays a prominent role or, at a minimum, in which the incumbent president is referenced. The following Presidents were in office during or after the PODs of various alternate history works, or in speculative stories set in the future of OTL.

John Quincy Adams is referenced as the incumbent President during "Hail! Hail!".

"Lee at the Alamo" is set from February to March 1861, during the presidential transition from James Buchanan to Abraham Lincoln. Both are referenced, and Lincoln directly appears.

"The House That George Built" has a 1914 POD and a 1941 setting. Woodrow Wilson (posthumous) and Franklin D. Roosevelt (incumbent) are referenced.

In the State of Jefferson Stories, the 1919 POD does not seem to have affected the list of Presidents as of 1980, when the most recent installment "Typecasting" takes place. Referenced post-POD Presidents include Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, Richard Nixon, and Jimmy Carter. Carter is the sitting President in the three works published thus far.

In addition to the above, Franklin D. Roosevelt is President in the Days of Infamy series, "News From the Front", The War That Came Early, and "Cayos in the Stream," all of which end during FDR's third term. "News From the Front" ends with Congress preparing to impeach Roosevelt in 1942; he would have been succeeded by Vice President Henry Wallace if convicted and removed from office. FDR is also President during the early scenes of The Man With the Iron Heart, and is referenced posthumously later in that novel.

Harry Truman appears as President in The Man With the Iron Heart and The Hot War, being a POV in the latter.

Dwight Eisenhower is referenced as the incumbent President in "Hindsight".

John F. Kennedy is the President and central POV character in "A Massachusetts Yankee in King Arthur's Court". He is also President in the unfinished work Winter of Our Discontent, initially co-written with Bryce Zabel, wherein Kennedy survives the attempt on his life, and is subsequently re-elected in 1964, but faces impeachment in 1966. Zabel completed the novel on his own and it was published under the title Surrounded by Enemies: What if Kennedy Survived Dallas? in July 2013. As Turtledove withdrew from the project while it was in progress, the final book is not in the purview of this Wiki.

Lyndon Johnson is referenced as the incumbent President in "The Fillmore Shoggoth". 

Donald Trump appears in the guise of the "Terrific Leader" in the short work of the same name. He reigns over an authoritarian regime several years after his initial election.

In "Elder Skelter", the unnamed incumbment President and her cabinet debate whether or not Quebec's attack on the Maritimes would be sufficient to trigger the emergency clause of the Twenty-Eighth Amendment.  Aside from her sex, nothing else is known about her.  

The Supervolcano series takes place over a period of eight to ten years. References are made to a sitting president at various points in the series, but no president is ever named, nor described in any detail. The President at the start of the series is a Democrat.

Historical Presidents in Non-Presidential RolesEdit

Several historical Presidents have appeared in the works of Harry Turtledove but never assumed the office for any number of reasons. In some works, the story is set well before the historical figure took office, or the historical figure is killed before they take office. In others works, the office does not exist.

George Washington plays significant posthumous background roles in The Two Georges as Governor-General of the North American Union, and The Disunited States of America as a great general but not as a political leader. 

John Adams is posthumously referenced in The Two Georges as a figure from the North American Union's history.

John Quincy Adams plays a posthumous role in The Disunited States of America as the leader of the independent state of Massachusetts.

Andrew Jackson is referenced in The Two Georges as a Governor-General of the North American Union. In "Hail! Hail!," he is likely to run for President in 1828, but the story does not depict this.

Abraham Lincoln is referenced in "Hail! Hail!" as a backwoods adolescent, but the story does not engage his political career.

Andrew Johnson appears in "Must and Shall" as Military Governor of Tennessee, and it is highly unlikely that he ever became President. In The Guns of the South, Johnson plays a background role as a losing candidate for Vice President, and the novel ends before the next election.

Ulysses S. Grant appears in The Guns of the South as the General-in-Chief of the Army, and the novel ends before he has had a chance to begin a political career. He appears in How Few Remain as a retired failure, and later volumes of Southern Victory confirm that he never became President in that timeline. In "Must and Shall," he is referenced as a victorious general, but there is no indication that he was President.

Rutherford B. Hayes is referenced in The Guns of the South, where he becomes a casualty of the Second American Revolution in 1864.

James A. Garfield appears as a U.S. Senator in How Few Remain, and is never mentioned again in the rest of the Southern Victory series.

Benjamin Harrison is the Secretary of War in How Few Remain, and is never referenced again in the rest of the Southern Victory series.

William Howard Taft appears in Southern Victory as a congressman who never becomes President.

Woodrow Wilson appears in The Great War trilogy as President of the Confederate States.

Franklin D. Roosevelt seeks the Presidency in in Joe Steele (both the novel and the short story) but is murdered before he can win the Democratic nomination. Roosevelt also features prominently in the Southern Victory series as both Secretary of War and Assistant Secretary of War for the United States, but never gains (or even seeks) the Presidency.

Harry Truman appears in Settling Accounts: In at the Death where he becomes Vice President at the end of the novel.

Dwight D. Eisenhower appears in his OTL capacity as a general in The Hot War, Joe Steele (and its source story), The Man With the Iron Heart, and Worldwar. In Joe Steele, he specifically refuses to seek the office. There is no suggestion in Worldwar that he was ever President. In The Man with the Iron Heart and The Hot War, he is mentioned as a possible candidate, but both works end before the next election. 

John F. Kennedy appears in The Two Georges as a magazine publisher who bitterly opposes the North American Union's form of government. He appears on the cover of the U.S. edition of Colonization: Down to Earth, operating a "futuristic" personal computer, but he is never mentioned in the actual text of the Worldwar franchise.

Richard Nixon appears in Colonization: Second Contact (as a Congressman), The Two Georges (as a used steam-car salesman), Settling Accounts: The Grapple (as a soldier), and Joe Steele (as an Assistant Attorney General). He plays background roles in The Hot War: Armistice (as a Senator) and "Hindsight" (as Vice President). In The Two Georges he never entered politics, while the Worldwar franchise (of which Second Contact is part) skips ahead in time and leaves his biography undiscussed. All the others end before he has had chance to run for the higher office.

Jimmy Carter appears briefly in Settling Accounts: Drive to the East, as a Confederate Navy sailor during the Second Great War in 1942, where he is promptly killed in action.

Ronald Reagan appears in American Empire: The Victorious Opposition and The Man With the Iron Heart in his OTL role as a media star; both timelines end before he has entered politics. In the ongoing State of Jefferson Stories, he is referenced as a former Governor of California running for President in 1980.

George H. W. Bush is obliquely referenced in the satire "Bedfellows" as someone whom the main characters are on their way to meet. The office of presidency is not mentioned. As the story is a satire, taking the plot literally is not the best approach to the material.

George W. Bush appears in the guise of "W" in "Bedfellows". As with his father (above), trying to determine whether W is President in the story is beside the point.

Donald Trump is referenced in The Disunited States of America and Supervolcano: All Fall Down in his OTL role of a tycoon and pussy-grabber. Both contexts were written as "the future of OTL," rather than alternate history, well before his election as President.

See AlsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Not strictly stated in the text, but strongly implied