Po'pay (also spelled Popé; ca. 1630 – ca. 1688) was a Tewa religious leader from Ohkay Owingeh (formerly known as San Juan Pueblo), who led the Pueblo Revolt against Spanish colonial rule in New Mexico 1680. The Revolt was the culmination of years of planning on Po'pay's part, which began after he was among several religious leaders accused of, and imprisoned for, witchcraft by the Spanish. Po'pay was able to form alliances with several of the pueblos in the area, despite a history conflict and a lack of common language. He even murdered his son-in-law, a Spanish loyalist.
Po'pay is believed to have died in 1688, but the circumstances of his death are not clear. While the Revolt was a success in the short term, by the end of the century, the Pueblo had grown fractured again, and the Spanish returned. However, the revolt did insure that the Pueblo culture survived, as the Spanish were much more liberal in their rule after their return.
In 1679, Po'pay, a Tewa leader and enemy of the Spanish, stumbled across a skeleton. While it was picked clean, he did find the wallet and eyewear that had belonged to Estevánico over a century before. When he put it on, he discovered its abilities, which put him on the path to a revolt against Spain, which would keep Spain out of New Mexico for 30 years. Po'pay did not know that he was observed by the time-traveler Esperanza, who was not surprised that Po'pay led the revolt with the help of a Mask.
While Po'pay appears briefly in the closing pages of "Eyewear", he is the central character in "Like the Rain", Jane Lindskold's contribution to Golden Reflections. Lindskold's story is not a sequel to Turtledove's, as Lindskold depicts Po'pay obtaining a full Mask in 1675.
It may also be the case that Turtledove's Po'pay is not the Po'pay of OTL, either. When he is first introduced, Po'pay is contemplating how to attack Santa Fe in 1679. In OTL, he'd set those plans in motion before 1679. Moreover, Esperanza reflects that the Spanish were kept away for 30 years. In OTL, the Spanish were able to return after 12 years.