Oleśnica is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland. During the Middle Ages, it was Germanised as Oels. After World War I, Öels was included within the Province of Lower Silesia. It was heavily damaged by the Red Army in 1945 during World War II, with approximately 60-80% of its buildings destroyed. The city was placed in Poland's borders after the Potsdam Conference and its original name was restored. The remaining German-speaking population was subsequently expelled and the city resettled with Poles, many of whom had been expelled from Eastern Poland, which in turn had been annexed in 1945 by the Soviet Union. From 1975–1998 it was in former Wrocław Voivodeship. It is the administrative seat of Oleśnica County and also of the rural district of Gmina Oleśnica, although it is not part of the territory of the latter, the town being an urban gmina in its own right.