Confederate Napoleons were produced in at least six variations, most of which had straight muzzles, but at least eight catalogued survivors of 133 identified have muzzle swells. Additionally, four iron Confederate Napoleons produced by Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond have been identified, of an estimated 125 cast. In early 1863, Robert E. Lee sent nearly all of the Army of Northern Virginia's bronze 6-pounder guns to Tredegar to be melted down and recast as Napoleons. Copper for casting bronze pieces became increasingly scarce to the Confederacy throughout the war and became acute in November 1863 when the Ducktown copper mines near Chattanooga were lost to Union forces. Casting of bronze Napoleons by the Confederacy ceased and in January 1864 Tredegar began producing iron Napoleons.
Napoleon cannon in The Guns of the SouthEdit
Brigadier General Edward Porter Alexander used a pair of Napoleon cannon to wreck the Long Bridge during the storming of Washington City. This prevented Union General Ulysses Grant from effectively counter-attacking and allowed the Confederates to consolidate their occupation.
Napoleon cannon in "Lee at the Alamo"Edit
Colonel Benjamin McCulloch of the Texas Militia finally ended the siege at the Alamo after a couple of months by seizing and using some Napoleon cannon. The cannon fire breeched a wall forming a 10-foot wide crack. This forced Lt. Colonel Robert E. Lee to surrender as his forces could no longer defend themselves from being taken by storm.
Napoleon cannon in Southern VictoryEdit
Napoleon cannon were used by both sides during the War of Secession. Twenty years later during the Second Mexican War, the cannon were now obsolete, as they weren't very accurate and weren't as devastating as exploding shells. They were still in use by the Kentucky militia to destroy the river steamer Queen of the Ohio.