The Republic of Mozambique is a country in southeastern Africa. It was explored by Vasco da Gama in 1446 and colonized by Portugal in 1505. By 1510, the Portuguese had control of all of the former Arab sultanates on the east African coast. From about 1500, Portuguese trading posts and forts became regular ports of call on the new route to the east.
After several centuries as a Portuguese holding, the 20th century saw Portugal embrace fascism, which in turn helped engender a revolutionary movement in Mozambique. A guerrilla war began in 1964, and ran until Mozambique was officially independent in 1975.
Almost immediately, Mozambique fell into a period of civil war, which lasted until 1992. Multi-party elections were held in 1994, and Mozambique has been relatively stable since.