Founded in Mongolia, the Mongol Empire covered over 33 million km² (12 million square miles) at its zenith, with an estimated population of over 100 million people. It was the second-largest empire in recorded history; only the British Empire covered more land area (about 10% more).
The Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan in 1206, and at its height, it encompassed the majority of the territories from East Asia to Eastern Europe. Its rulers initially styled themselves Khans, as Genghis Khan had, and later promoted themselves to Khagans, which bears roughly the same linguistic relationship to "Khan" as "Emperor" does to "King" in English. Genghis Khan was posthumously given the Khagan title.
Some 50 to 60 thousand years AD, Lasoporp Rof was a graduate student in ancientest history. His dissertation was to be on the expansion of the Mongol Empire during the Mid-Middle First Primitive Period so he received permission to use a time machine to travel back and observe Genghis Khan. However, he encountered the wrong man in the wrong century and continent.
- Jurchens, a historical tribe who were defeated by the Mongols in 1234 in OTL. In Agent of Byzantium, the Jurchens seem to have taken the Mongols' place in history by the early 14th century.