Nazis (and sometimes also other antisemites) regard - and persecute - as Jews, as well as people of Jewish ancestry who do not regard themselves as Jews, even when they have converted to and actively practice Christianity or another religion.
Jews in "Before the Beginning"
The population of the world became Jewish after it was learned that they were indeed God's chosen people.
Jews in In High Places
In an alternate where the Great Black Deaths killed 4/5 of the population of Europe, the Jews were treated with suspicion and hatred by Europeans into the late 21st century. Thus, the Klein family disguised themselves as Arabs when they traded in that alternate.
Jacques, a native of that alternate, had to overcome certain of his prejudices (among them the belief that Jews were only good for throwing stones at) when he decided to stay in the home timeline, as well as continue his friendship with Annette Klein.
Jews in "The Last Article"
Having emerged victorious from World War II, Nazi Germany embarked on a programme of mass extermination of the European Jews. By 1947, the refugee Simon Wiesenthal was able to escape from Poland to India and informed Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru of the situation in Europe. Gandhi did not believe Wiesenthal's claims as he was convinced that such actions would lead to a country's ruination. Nehru suspected otherwise and challenged Gandhi to find one Jewish soldier among the German occupation force. Gandhi noted that the British had had little use for Jews either. While Nehru agreed with this assessment, he pointed out that the British would never have banned Jews from serving in their military as the Germans had done.
Jews in In the Presence of Mine Enemies
The destruction of the Jews was a key policy of Führer Adolf Hitler and the Nazis. Upon assuming control of Germany, the Nazis very quickly put into place laws that stripped Jews of many of their rights, including their German citizenship. Eventually, the Nazis moved on to out-and-out extermination of the Jews.
With the Axis emerging victorious from Second World War, and with Germany in physical control of most of Europe, the Nazis had a free hand, hunting the Jews virutally to extinction. Moreover, Germany pressured their allies to implement similar policies within their own borders. When Germany and its ally Japan defeated the United States during the Third World War, the Jews of North America were also subject to genocide.
Jews became mythological monsters in German society, and the state made certain that this notion was perpetuated, even after the bulk of the Jews had been killed. The education system routinely delivered history lessons underscoring Jewish "villainy". In casual conversation, people still enjoyed taking pot-shots at the Jews, even in the most extraneous situations. To be denounced as a Jew was a death sentence. There were no vestiges of Jews left beyond ugly stereotypes and caricatures.
Nonetheless, in the year 2010, after 70 years of Nazi global domination, Jews survived, hiding in plain sight. Members of the Jewish community who survived a lifetime of genocide created non-Jewish identities for themselves and their families. Thus, Jews filled many facets of society, including the governmental bureaucracy.
Some Jews continued to practice a restricted form of Judaism in secret, although some of the most definitive aspects of Judiasm had long ago been abandoned out of necessity - such as circumcision, hitherto a central tenet of Judaism but a too obvious means of identifying (male) Jews to be practiced. Other rituals were adopted to insure the continued survival of the Jewish people. For example, children who had always believed themselves to be good Aryans and despised the Jews were informed that they were in fact Jewish upon reaching their tenth birthday.
The hidden Jews of Berlin speculated that there might be other hidden Jews elsewhere in the world; for example, Susanna Weiss thought that a French professor which she met in London might be a hidden Jew. However, there was no way for different groups of hidden Jews to contact each other without risking discovery and death, so these speculations remained such.
In 2010, the Wehrmacht discovered three Jewish families who had been hidden by a Serbian village and who did practice circumcision. The families and their Serbian protectors were put to death. Heinrich Gimpel, hearing this news which was featured prominently on the German TV news, mentally recited the Jewish Prayer for the Dead while pretending to continue his normal work.
Jews in "In This Season"
Jews in "Joe Steele"
President Joe Steele distrusted Jews. The revelation that Albert Einstein knew about the atomic bomb spelled the death of several Jewish scientists. Still, Steele never took persecution of the Jews in the United States to the same level Germany had.
Jews in "Next Year in Jerusalem"
The global Jewish community was somewhat split over their future. A substantial number, particularly those who'd grown up in exile, longed for the reconsistution of Israel. To this end, they formed the Second Irgun.
However, many Jews living in Palestine decided that they could never have defeated the Muslims forever, and so decided accepting their domination was in their best interests.
Jews in "Occupation Duty"
The Evraioi were a Semite people in the Middle East along with the Arabs, the Aramaeans, the Phoenicians and the Moabites. They were closely allied with Moab, such that when the Philistines invaded and their champion Lord Goliath sought single combat, Tabitas of the Evraioi came forward. He was defeated by Goliath.
Jews in "Shtetl Days"
After Nazi Germany emerging victorious from the War of Retribution, the German Empire oversaw the extermination of the Jews everywhere. While doing so, the Nazis made meticulous records of the people they exterminated. Thus, in the 21st Century, the German Empire permitted the re-creation of shtetls, populated by Aryan actors playing the parts of Jews. These re-created shtetls became tourist attractions.
In the shtetl of Wawolnice, the actors played various roles common in a late 19th Century Jewish community. They spoke in Yiddish and Hebrew and scrupulously observed the tenets of Judaism. They were even subject to mock "pogroms", wherein certain parts of the town were burned, and German convicts were allowed to be murdered.
However, the actors became so immersed in their re-creations that within time, they came to identify with their characters more than with their German identities. In this way, the Jews were quietly reborn.
Jews in Southern Victory
Jews in Germany were free to live and practice their religion largely unmolested. Indeed, during the Second Great War, many of the key figures of the German superbomb project (such as Albert Einstein) were Jewish.
In Russia, particularly during the Second Great War, Tsar Mikhail II allowed renewed pogroms against the Jews at the hands of the Black Hundreds, because many Jews took part in the Russian Revolution that overthrew his brother Nicholas II and forced Russia to withdraw from the Great War. The Germans supported Jewish guerrillas resisting the Russian government from within its territory as well as several other minority groups, including the Finns and the Chechens.
In Poland, where Poles were divided in their loyalties, Jews overwhelmingly supported the German client Kingdom of Poland against the Russians, whose genocidal policies they feared. Poland did not have its own history of pogroms, though rumors of one spread during Russia's revitalization of anti-Judaism hostilities.
North American Jews
Jews were largely free from overt discrimination both in the United States and the Confederate States. Jews rose to political prominence in both countries' governments: Congresswoman and former First Lady Flora Blackford in the US, Freedomite Director of Communications Saul Goldman in the CS.
In the Confederacy, many Jews supported the Freedom Party because the party broke with historical tradition: it did not scapegoat Jews for the Confederacy's defeat in the Great War, but instead targeted blacks. In countries from which Jewish immigrants fled to the CS, they themselves had been scapegoated for the problems that plagued the country and the social and economic levels--as happened in Russia under Tsar Mikhail II. (Saul Goldman himself thanked Jake Featherston early in the latter's career for not demonizing Jews; in 1944, Goldman began to vaguely realize that the tribulations of the blacks in the CS were not that much different from the problems faced by Jews in the past. It did him no good; he was executed for crimes against humanity in 1945.)
T.G. Kahn had a menorah as a decoration on his coffee table in his condo. When he brought Lasoparop Rof home with him, the latter examined it and stated that it was a strange coincidence, that if he had seen it in his own time he would have thought Kahn was Jewish. This indicated that Judaism had survived the fifty to sixty thousand years to Lasoparop's own time.
Jews in The Two Georges
There were only a small number of Jews living in the North American Union. With a stable conservative status quo maintained in Europe for centuries, and no large-scale wars or revolutions, there were also no major incidents of antisemitic persecution and thus no strong incentive for Jews to emigrate across the Atlantic. The Jews who lived in North America suffered some harassment from the racist "Sons of Liberty" underground, but most of its attacks were directed at bigger and more prominent non-WASP ethnic groups.
Jews in The War That Came Early
By the time of the outbreak of the European War in September-October 1938, German Jews had been living for more than five years under constant and ever-increasing Nazi harassment, discrimination and exclusion from the rest of German society. With the outbreak of war, Jews were prohibited from using air-raid shelters, leaving them vulnerable to British and French air raids. Jews were excluded from joining the Wehrmacht, despite the fact that many Jews were patriotic Germans and were still willing to fight for a country which treated them so badly, and even if they served with distinction in the First World War and were still physically fit.
The conquest of Czechoslovakia was accompanied by random attacks on Jews which the conquerors encountered. Later on, the Jews of Netherlands, Belgium and much of northern France fell victim to persecution as each fell under German domination.
The three million Jews of Poland - Europe's largest community, by far - had for decades faced endemeic manifestations of antisemitism, which in turn often influenced government policies. As of mid-1939, their situation had not significantly changed due to the outbreak of war and to Poland becoming Nazi Gemrany's ally. The Nazis made no visible effort to influence their Polish allies into taking a more blatant anti-Jewish policy.
Jews in Worldwar
Poland's Jews were being persecuted by Germany when the Race's Conquest Fleet invaded. They had been forced to live in ghettoes and were being relocated to concentration camps when the Race drove German forces out of Poland. The Race supported a Jewish uprising in the Warsaw Ghetto, and most Polish Jews supported the Race in the ensuing war with the major human powers, though the Jewish militia under Mordechai Anielewicz briefly opposed the Race. When the war ended with the Peace of Cairo (an agreement in which former Polish Jew Moishe Russie played a role as advisor to Atvar), Jews lived comfortably under the Race in Poland, and Anielewicz promised to use his militia to defend the Race's colonies in Poland against either Germany or the Soviet Union should ever become necessary. In 1965, when Germany invaded Poland, he delivered on his promise and submitted his forces to the Conquest Fleet's chain of command. With the Polish militia, which was also loyal to the Race, they made up the majority of the Race's infantry units in Poland during Germany's brief but costly invasion.
Anieliewicz's militia had taken control of a German explosive-metal bomb which Otto Skorzeny had smuggled into Lodz while the Peace of Cairo was being completed. This was the one weapon in his arsenal which Anielewicz refused to put under the Conquest Fleet's chain of command during the Race-German War of 1965. Anielewicz lost track of the weapon during the war, and it fell into the hands of a group of radical Jewish fundamentalists who smuggled it into Germany and attempted to detonate it as revenge for the mass murder of Jews. They failed to do so because the bomb had ceased to function for lack of proper maintenence.
Jews in Britain had served their country faithfully both in World War II and the war against the Race. However, as Britain gradually came under the sway of Germany, Jews were slowly disenfranchised, and many emigrated either to Palestine in the Race's territory, the United States, or Canada, where they were able to live and practice their faith largely unmolested. It is unknown whether this antisemitic trend in Britain continued also after Germany's crushing defeat by the Race in 1965.
In Germany, Jews were subject to genocidal policies by the Nazi government despite political pressures from the Race. As Jews were prominently city dwellers, surviving hidden Jews were also among the victims of the mass nuclear bombing of Germany by the Race in the war of 1965.
Jews who survived both mass murder and nuclear war no longer needed to worry about the apparatus of the Nazi state, which was broken up and discredited - but still had to keep their identity secret. The surviving German population, which had experienced Nazi indoctrination for three decades, was living in terrible sqaulor at a destroyed and radioatively contimanted land - conditions highly conductive to scapegoating and witch hunts.
The Race's Territory
Jews in the Middle East largely supported the Race over the British. They lived comfortably in the Race-controlled Middle East after the Peace of Cairo. They were frequently forced to contend with sectarian tensions with Muslims, who largely opposed the Race's rule in the Middle East. Jews were also treated well by the Race in other areas it had conquered and colonized. However, when the Race began taxing "superstitions" other than emperor-worship in the early 1960s, they were steadfast in their rejection of the alien religion.
The Soviet Union
In the Soviet Union, the Jews were fairly prominent politically. They supported the Communist government.
The United States
In the United States, Jews did well for themselves and practiced their religion freely, a benefit of the Free Exercise Clause. Many Jews from other parts of the world, notably Germany and Britain, attempted to emigrate to the US. Some succeeded, but the US tightly controlled its immigration policies.