Archaeological evidence supports the origins of the Jews in the Levant in the second millennium BCE. While the texts of Judaism describe the creation of a United Kingdom of Israel, followed by a number of successor states, there is little independent support for this in the historical record. The available evidence does suggest that the respective Kingdoms of Israel and Judah did exist in the first century BCE, and that both were conquered by rival empires.
The descendants of these two kingdoms endured periods of captivity and exile in the centuries that followed. The first exile was the Assyrian exile (733 BCE-722 BCE). The next experience of exile was the Babylonian captivity, with deportations in 597 BCE and again in 586 BCE by the Neo-Babylonian Empire. By the middle of the first century CE, large Jewish populations resided in provinces of the Roman Empire. However, Roman rule and reorganization led to a Jewish uprising in 66 CE. The Romans ended the uprising by destroying most of Jerusalem and the Second Temple in 70 CE. Jewish leaders were enslaved, exiled, or killed. Another uprising came in 132 CE, which was also crushed, and saw more exiles.
By the time of the Middle Ages, the Jewish population was so dispersed globally, that the Jews soon developed distinct regional subgroups in Europe, Asia, and North Africa. Nonetheless, these different groups were often subject to parallel levels of persecution, expulsion, and massacre. Still, prior to World War II, the worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million. During World War II, Adolf Hitler of Germany initiated a program that sought to exterminate the Jews altogether. As part or this, Germany and its allies systematically murdered 6 million Jews across Europe in what came to be called the Holocaust.
While the establishment of a Jewish homeland had been a millennia-old dream of the Jews, it was only after World War I that a concrete plan for a Jewish homeland was formulated. That plan was accelerated in response to the Holocaust after World War II. The State of Israel was declared and recognized in 1948. Israel is the only country where Jews form a majority of the population. The modern State of Israel was established as a Jewish state and defines itself as such in its Declaration of Independence and Basic Laws. Its Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to any Jew who requests it.
Jews in Atlantis
Jews were a part of Atlantis both during its settlement period and after the formation of the United States of Atlantis. While Atlantean settlements were capable of broad tolerance, nonetheless, Jews met with some of the same hostility that they had met in the Old World.
During the Atlantean War of Independence, merchant Benjamin Benveniste, the sole Jewish member of the Atlantean Assembly, loaned the government enough money to keep it going during the war. No less than Victor Radcliff himself expressed his belief that the United States of Atlantis would maintain religious toleration. Nonetheless, by the mid-19th Century, it was still an article of faith that a Jew could only go so far in Atlantis, regardless of his or her talents.
During his visit to Atlantis, Athelstan Helms disclosed that he had investigated the accusations made in Russia that Jews practiced ritual murder, and found all such assertions to be completely baseless. This experience made Helms more skeptical about the accusations of religiously-motivated murder made against the House of Universal Devotion.
T.G. Kahn had an Israeli-made menorah as a decoration on his coffee table in his condo. When he brought Lasoporp Rof home with him, the latter examined it and stated that it was a strange coincidence, that if he had seen it in his own time he would have thought Kahn was Jewish. This indicated that Judaism had survived the 50 or 60 millennia to Lasoparop's own time.
Jews in "Before the Beginning"
Jews in The Case of the Toxic Spell Dump
Jews in Crosstime Traffic
Jews in Curious Notions
Although the German Empire had its share of anti-Semites, it never institutionalised the persecution of Jews, and thus benefited from their skills in wartime. Most importantly, Jewish atomic scientists helped construct the nuclear weapons which devastated the United States in 1956 and made Germany the master of the world.
Jews in Gunpowder Empire
Jews remained a recognized group in the Roman Empire in the late 21st century. Unlike most other people in the Empire, the Jews did not believe that the Emperor was divine, but did think of him as the viceroy on Earth of their own God, and were ready to sacrifice to his health and good fortune. This was satisfactory to the Imperial authorities. Jews, unlike Christians, were not required to sacrifice to the Emperor's spirit.
Jews in In High Places
In an alternate where the Great Black Deaths killed 80% of the population of Europe in the 14th century, the Jews were treated with suspicion and hatred by Europeans, particularly Christians, into the late 21st century. Thus, the Klein family disguised themselves as Arabs when they did Crosstime business in that alternate.
Jacques of Versailles, a native of that alternate, had to overcome certain prejudices (among them the belief that Jews were only good for throwing stones at) when he decided to stay in the home timeline, as well as continue his friendship with Annette Klein.
The history of the alternate where the two were held as slaves had diverged with Rome's defeat in the Samnite Wars. Annette Klein wondered if someday Crosstime might learn whether Jews still existed there and if so, how their culture had evolved with no Roman Empire to disperse them.
Jews in "Gentlemen of the Shade"
The Jews of London were as despised as the vampires would have become were their existence known. It was from this fact that the vampire Jerome found a convenient scapegoat to misdirect Scotland Yard away from the identity of the rogue vampire who was terrorising Whitechapel. On a wall near the murder scene of Elizabeth Stride and Catherine Eddowes, Jerome wrote "The Jewes are the men who will not be blamed for nothing," a message ambiguous enough, or so Jerome hoped, to excite attention without offering any definite information.
Jews in The Hot War
The Jews of the world, particularly those of Europe, were still traumatized by World War II and the Holocaust when World War III broke out in 1951. Some survivors of the Holocaust made their way to the United States, where some found themselves victimized again by Soviet atomic attacks.
Jews remained in areas of Soviet influence, as well, filling a variety of social strata. They were dubbed "rootless cosmopolites" by the anti-theist dogma of Marxist dogma, although Jews knew that the phrase was a cover for anti-Semitism.
Jews in In the Presence of Mine Enemies
The destruction of the Jews was a key policy of Führer Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. Upon assuming control of Germany, the Nazis very quickly put into place laws that stripped Jews of many of their rights, including their German citizenship. Eventually, the Nazis moved on to out-and-out extermination of the Jews.
With the Axis emerging victorious from Second World War, and with Germany in physical control of most of Europe, the Nazis had a free hand, hunting the Jews virtually to extinction. Moreover, Germany pressured their allies to implement similar policies within their own borders. When Germany and its ally Japan defeated the United States and Canada during the Third World War, the Jews of North America were also subject to genocide.
Jews became mythological monsters in German society, and the state made certain that this notion was perpetuated, even after the bulk of the Jews had been killed. The education system routinely delivered history lessons underscoring Jewish "villainy". In casual conversation, people still enjoyed taking pot-shots at the Jews, even in the most extraneous situations. To be denounced as a Jew was a death sentence. There were no vestiges of Jews left beyond ugly stereotypes and caricatures.
Nonetheless, in the year 2010, after 70 years of Nazi global domination, Jews survived, hiding in plain sight. Members of the Jewish community who survived a lifetime of genocide created non-Jewish identities for themselves and their families. Thus, Jews filled many facets of society, including the governmental bureaucracy.
Some Jews continued to practice a restricted form of Judaism in secret, although some of the most definitive aspects of Judaism had long ago been abandoned out of necessity - such as circumcision, hitherto a central tenet of Judaism but a too obvious means of identifying (male) Jews to be practiced. Other rituals were adopted to insure the continued survival of the Jewish people. For example, children who had always believed themselves to be good Aryans and despised the Jews were informed that they were in fact Jewish upon reaching their 10th birthday.
The hidden Jews of Berlin speculated that there might be other hidden Jews elsewhere in the world; for example, Susanna Weiss thought that a French professor which she met in London might be a hidden Jew. However, there was no way for different groups of hidden Jews to contact each other without risking discovery and death, so these speculations remained such.
In 2010, the Wehrmacht discovered three Jewish families who had been hidden by a Serbian village and who did practice circumcision. The families and their Serbian protectors were put to death. Heinrich Gimpel, hearing this news which was featured prominently on the Seven O'clock News, mentally recited the Jewish Prayer for the Dead while pretending to continue his normal work.
The reforms instituted by Führer Heinz Buckliger in 2010-2011 did not mention any change in policy toward Jews, nevertheless they offered many of the secret Jews of Germany cautious hope, as Buckliger was much more lenient toward nonconformities in comparison to the first three Führers.
Jews in "In This Season"
Jews in Joe Steele
US President Joe Steele was known to be distrustful of Jews. The revelation that Albert Einstein knew about the atomic bomb in 1946 spelled the death of several Jewish scientists. Still, Steele never took persecution of the Jews in the United States to the same level Germany had, and even kept a few Jewish movers and shakers such as Lazar Kagan as members of his inner circle.
Jews in "The Last Article"
Having emerged victorious from World War II, Nazi Germany embarked on a program of mass extermination of the European Jews. In 1947, the refugee Simon Wiesenthal was able to escape from Poland to India and informed Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru of the situation in Europe. Gandhi did not believe Wiesenthal's claims as he was convinced that such actions would lead to a country's ruination. Nehru suspected otherwise and challenged Gandhi to find one Jewish soldier among the German occupation force. Gandhi noted that the British had had little use for Jews either. While Nehru agreed with this assessment, he pointed out that the British would never have banned Jews from serving in their military as the Germans had done.
Jews in "The More it Changes"
Although Sabbatai Tzevi had himself been a Jew, the Jews of Souteastern Europe were subject to violent attacks by Tzevi's followers throughout the 18th Century, as were other religions. In 1773, the Jews of Kolomija joined their Polish-Catholic neighbors in a doomed effort to fight off an attack by Sabbatean haidamacks.
Jews in "Next Year in Jerusalem"
The global Jewish community was somewhat split over their future. A substantial number, particularly those who'd grown up in exile, longed for the reconstitution of Israel. To this end, they formed the Second Irgun.
However, many Jews living in Palestine decided that they could never have defeated the Muslims forever, and so decided accepting their domination was in their best interests. When Rabbi Chaim Perelman, a proponent of pacifistic appeasement, was murdered in his home by the Second Irgun, his martyrdom was followed by an outpouring of public support for this viewpoint.
Jews in "Occupation Duty"
The Evraioi were a Semitic people in the Middle East along with the Arabs, the Aramaeans, the Phoenicians and the Moabites. When the Philistines invaded the Evraioi lands, the Philistine champion Lord Goliath sought single combat. Tabitas came forward, and was defeated by Goliath. Three millennia later, the Evraioi, along with all of the smaller Semitic groups, were referred to interchangeably as "Moabites.".
By 1491, Spain was on the verge of expelling all Jews from its borders. Jaime Nosénada's committee report stated that this was a desirable move toward national homogeneity, to be achieved after nearly eight centuries of sustained effort. Nosénada advised against jeopardizing this status with the inevitable cultural contamination that would arise from Cristóbal Colón's proposed journey to unknown lands in Asia.
Jews in "Shock and Awe"
Jews in "Shtetl Days"
After Nazi Germany emerged victorious from the War of Retribution, the Greater German Reich oversaw the extermination of the Jews everywhere. While doing so, the Nazis made meticulous records of the people they exterminated. Thus, in the early 21st Century, the Reich made tourist attractions by re-creating shtetls, populated by Aryan actors playing the parts of Jews. In the shtetl of Wawolnice, the actors played various roles common in a late 19th Century Jewish community. They spoke in Yiddish and Hebrew and scrupulously observed the tenets of Judaism. They were even subject to mock "pogroms", wherein certain parts of the town were burned, and German convicts were allowed to be murdered.
However, the actors became so immersed in their re-creations that within time, they came to identify with their characters more than with their German identities. In this way, the Jews were quietly reborn.
Jews in Southern Victory
Jews in Germany were free to live and practice their religion largely unmolested. Indeed, during the Second Great War, many of the key figures of the German superbomb project (such as Albert Einstein) were Jewish.
In Russia, particularly during the Second Great War, Tsar Mikhail II allowed renewed pogroms against the Jews at the hands of the Black Hundreds, because many Jews took part in the Russian Revolution that nearly overthrew his brother Nicholas II and forced Russia to withdraw from the Great War. The Germans supported Jewish guerrillas resisting the Russian government from within its territory as well as several other minority groups, including the Finns and the Chechens.
In Poland, where Poles were divided in their loyalties, Jews overwhelmingly supported the German client Kingdom of Poland against the Russians, whose genocidal policies they feared. Poland did not have its own history of pogroms, though rumors of one spread during Russia's revitalization of anti-Semitic hostilities.
North American Jews
Jews were largely free from overt discrimination both in the United States and the Confederate States, but still looked down upon by many non-Jews. Judah P. Benjamin, for example, was one North American Jew who served as an important government official for the Confederacy. Jews rose to political prominence in the 1920s and 1930s in both countries' governments: Congresswoman and former First Lady Flora Blackford in the US, Director of Communications Saul Goldman in the CS.
In the Confederacy, many Jews supported the Freedom Party because the party broke with historical tradition: it did not scapegoat Jews for the Confederacy's defeat in the Great War, but instead targeted Negroes. In countries from which Jewish immigrants fled to the CS, they themselves had been scapegoated for the problems that plagued the country and the social and economic levels--as happened in Russia under Tsar Mikhail II. (Saul Goldman himself thanked Jake Featherston early in the latter's career for not demonizing Jews; in 1944, Goldman began to vaguely realize that the tribulations of the blacks in the CS were not that much different from the problems faced by Jews in the past. It did him no good; he was executed for crimes against humanity in 1945.)
Jews in Thessalonica
The Jews of Thessalonica mostly lived in the southwestern part of the city and dominated the bronze and coppersmithing trades. They were subject to considerable prejudice by many of the city's Christian population, though at time of the Emperor Maurice, when the city was besieged by Slavs and Avars, there was no active persecution. For their part the Jews, though cordial to non-Jewish customers in their shops, avoided closer social contacts with them.
Claudia, the wife of Dactilius the jeweller, was especially outspoken in her hatred of the Jews, and would have liked to "give them to the Slavs and Avars", were that possible. George the shoemaker, who anyway disliked Claudia, was especially annoyed with this. George himself was free of prejudice and always tried to be fair to the Jews. George liked Benjamin the Coppersmith, from whom he was regularly buying buckles for sandals, and would have liked Benjamin to consider him a friend as well as customer.
During the siege, Benjamin contributed to the city's defense by producing, at the order of Bishop Eusebius, high-quality bronze arrowheads, as did others of the Jewish artisans.
The Slav and Avar magicians who launched various supernatural attacks on Thessalonica had some knowledge of the Christian God and Saints protecting Thessalonica, and used magic which had some chance of working against a Christian city. But until coming to Thessalonica they had never encountered Jews and had no knowledge of the Jewish God defending His worshipers in the city. Therefore, the attack by a Slavic water elemental whose avatars burst out from various cisterns in the city was not manifested in the Jewish quarter. Similarly, when an Avar Fire goddess was invoked for a spell putting off fires in the city, this did not affect the Jews. George went to the Jewish Quarter and got a fire from Benjamin, which he used to help light fires in various other parts of the city.
When the Slavs and Avars were routed and the siege removed, Jews were included in the general celebrating in the streets, prejudice against them being for the moment put aside - which the Jews found quite bewildering.
Jews in Through Darkest Europe
Jews were tolerated in the Islamic world, though like Christians, they had to pay a negligible yearly tax for the purpose of practicing Judaism in peace. They were at a disadvantage in the job market; if a Jew and a Muslim applied for the same job, 9 out of 10 times it would go to the Muslim. Popular wisdom held that a Jew had to work twice as hard as a Muslim to be half as successful. Nevertheless, upward mobility and success was possible, and Jews were never the target of any particular persecution by any Muslim group. Jews also knew that the Christians of Europe, particularly the Aquinists, would make much less hospitable masters, and appreciated their Muslim overlords for that reason.
Nevertheless, there were Jews who sought a national homeland for their kind, and set up the Jewish Nationhood Society for this reason.
Jews in The Two Georges
The number of Jews living in the North American Union was "thin on the ground," but for the most part they lived safely and comfortably. They occasionally suffered some harassment from the racialist "Sons of Liberty" underground, but most of that group's attacks were directed at bigger and more prominent minority groups. In early 1995, a young "Son" named Peter Jarrold was sentenced to 10 years in prison for setting fire to a New Liverpool synagogue.
Jews in "Uncle Alf"
The Jew, in Adolf Hitler's mind, was a purveyor and panderer of the vilest and most anti-German sort of filth. Madame Lea was a perfect example of this threat. Hitler wished that such people should be exterminated, on the rare occasions when he thought about them at all.
Jews in The War That Came Early
By the time of the outbreak of the European War in September-October 1938, German Jews had been living for more than five years under constant and ever-increasing Nazi harassment, discrimination and exclusion from the rest of German society. With the outbreak of war, Jews were prohibited from using air-raid shelters, leaving them vulnerable to British and French air raids. Jews were excluded from joining the Wehrmacht, despite the fact that many Jews were patriotic Germans and were still willing to fight for a country which treated them so badly, and even if they served with distinction in the First World War and were still physically fit.
The conquest of Czechoslovakia was accompanied by random attacks on Jews which the conquerors encountered. Later on, all Czech Jews were forced to leave their homes and move into the old fortress city of Theresienstadt.
Later on, Germany conquered Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark and Norway, exposing the Jews of these countries to Nazi persecution. The same seemed true for Jews in much of northern France, but fortunately for them German occupation there proved short-lived.
The three million Jews of Poland - Europe's largest community, by far - had for decades faced endemic manifestations of antisemitism, which in turn often influenced government policies. Their situation had not significantly changed due to the outbreak of war and to Poland becoming Nazi Germany's ally. While the Nazis did often make suggestions to the Polish government about imposing restrictions on Polish Jews similar to those imposed by Germany, the Poles refused and were quite adamant that Germany not interfere with Poland's Jewish population.
When German forces advanced into Soviet territory throughout 1939 and into 1940, there were rumors of their perpetrating large-scale massacres of the Jews they found there, but there was no firm information. While French and British forces were fighting in Russia on Germany's side, they sometimes tried to protect the Jews - but with their changing sides again in 1941, the Jews lost that protection.
With Germany once again fighting a two front war from 1942 on, discontent began to fester. Münich was a center of that discontent, led in part by Bishop Clemens August von Galen, who was critical of the Nazis' euthanasia programs. Finally, Hitler overplayed his hand when the government arrested von Galen, prompting a round of demonstrations in Münster. In the spring of 1943, another demonstration in the square outside of Münster's cathedral erupted into violence when police officers fired on the crowd. While several protesters were shot, other were able to charge the line of police, inflicting damage in return. In response, the German government sent the SS into Münster, who fortified the cathedral. While the people of Münster publicly accepted martial law, resentment boiled just below the surface. Moreover, German citizens began to regret the anti-Semitism of the Nazis, and quietly made shows of solidarity with the Jews.
The Nazis responded by doubling down on their anti-Semitism, blaming a Jewish conspiracy for the Münster uprisings. In the closing days of 1943, Hitler launched a war with the United States. This prompted several military leaders to form the Committee for the Salvation of the German Nation, with General Heinz Guderian as their leader. When Hitler decided to broadcast a speech from Münster in an attempt to regain the country's trust, the group successfully assassinated him with a bomb, despite the heavy security measures the SS put into place.
A civil war broke out almost immediately. Several of Hitler's would-be successors were arrested or killed. Ultimately, Guderian and the Committee triumphed. Their victory saw the end of the country's anti-Semitic policies. News broadcasts included uncomplimentary reports about Germany and emphasized the crimes and cruelty of the SS and SD. It also quietly revoked the Reich Citizenship Law of 1935 which effectively restored citizenship to Jews rather than treating them as residents without rights. It also removed the requirement that Jews have the yellow star of David on their clothing in public.
Thus after a decade of fear and persecution, the Jews of Germany began to rebuild their place in their country.
Jews in Worldwar
Poland's Jews were being persecuted by Germany when the Race's Conquest Fleet invaded. They had been forced to live in ghettoes and were being relocated to concentration camps when the Race drove German forces out of Poland. The Race supported a Jewish uprising in the Warsaw Ghetto, and most Polish Jews supported the Race in the ensuing war with the major human powers, though the Jewish militia under Mordechai Anielewicz briefly opposed the Race. When the war ended with the Peace of Cairo (an agreement in which former Polish Jew Moishe Russie played a role as advisor to Fleetlord Atvar), Jews lived comfortably under the Race in Poland, and Anielewicz promised to use his militia to defend the Race's colonies in Poland against either Germany or the Soviet Union should ever become necessary. In 1965, when Germany invaded Poland, he delivered on his promise and submitted his forces to the Conquest Fleet's chain of command. With the Polish militia, which was also loyal to the Race, they made up the majority of the Race's infantry units in Poland during Germany's brief but costly invasion.
Anieliewicz's militia had taken control of a German explosive-metal bomb which Otto Skorzeny had smuggled into Lodz while the Peace of Cairo was being completed. This was the one weapon in his arsenal which Anielewicz refused to put under the Conquest Fleet's chain of command during the Race-German War of 1965. Anielewicz lost track of the weapon during the war, and it fell into the hands of a group of radical Jewish fundamentalists led by Benjamin Rubin. Rubin's gang smuggled it into Kanth, Germany, where they attempted to detonate it as revenge for the mass murder of Jews. They failed to do so because the bomb had ceased to function for lack of proper maintenence.
Jews in Britain had served their country faithfully both in World War II and the war against the Race. However, as Britain gradually came under the sway of Germany, Jews were slowly disenfranchised, and many emigrated either to Northern Ireland (where the Protestants and Catholics were too busy fighting each other to care about Jews), Palestine in the Race's territory, the United States, or Canada, where they were able to live and practice their faith largely unmolested.
The text does not address whether this anti-Semitic trend in Britain continued after Germany's crushing defeat by the Race in 1965.
The Race's Territory
Jews in the Middle East largely supported the Race over the British. They lived comfortably in the Race-controlled Middle East after the Peace of Cairo. They were frequently forced to contend with sectarian tensions with Muslims, who largely opposed the Race's rule in the Middle East. Jews were also treated well by the Race in other areas it had conquered and colonized. However, when the Race began taxing "superstitions" other than emperor-worship in the early 1960s, they were steadfast in their rejection of the alien religion.
The Soviet Union
The United States
In the United States, Jews did well for themselves and practiced their religion freely, a benefit of the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment. Many Jews from other parts of the world, notably Germany and Britain, attempted to emigrate to the US. Some succeeded, but the US tightly controlled its immigration policies.
Jews in "Zigeuner"
The Jews had been a persecuted people prior to Adolf Hitler's rise to power in Germany. However, Hitler's experiences on the Eastern Front of World War I, where he saw the harsh treatment the Russian Empire inflicted on the Jews, he grew much more sympathetic to them. Conversely, Hitler felt that he and his men were further victimized by local Zigeuner, who stole necessities, such as horses and boots and telegraph wire. Hitler held the whole of the Zigeuner people for the causing unnecessary German casualties.
Under Hitler's leadership, the Nazis declared Zigeuner to be Untermenschen, along with Bolsheviks and homosexuals. However, the Nazis promoted toleration of the Jews, and accepted Jews into their ranks. When Hitler took power in Germany, he made these policies the laws of the country. With the outbreak of World War II, Hitler directed the SS to round up and eliminate the Zigeuner they found in the areas Germany occupied. Hitler also directed Germany's allies to do the same thing. Jews participated as members of the German military and the SS.
Even as the Soviet Red Army had entered eastern Hungary in October 1944, SS Haupsturmführer Joseph Stieglitz, a Jew, oversaw the capture and deportation of a Zigeuner village near Nagylengyel in western Hungary.
- ↑ See, e.g., Opening Atlantis, pg. 203.
- ↑ The United States of Atlantis, pg. 293.
- ↑ Ibid.
- ↑ Liberating Atlantis, Ch VI.
- ↑ See e.g.: Atlantis and Other Places, pg. 395, HC.
- ↑ Liberating Atlantis, p. 213.
- ↑ See Inconsistencies in Turtledove's Work#Inconsistencies in "Gentlemen of the Shade"
- ↑ See, e.g., Bombs Away, pgs. 147-150, ebook.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 253.
- ↑ See e.g.: Atlantis and Other Places, pgs. 238-239, HC.
- ↑ "Occupation Duty", generally
- ↑ Departures, p. 143.
- ↑ The Two Georges, pg. 86, MPB.
- ↑ Alternate Generals II, p. 91-92, Atlantis and Other Places, p. 354.
- ↑ Two Fronts, pg. 358.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 386-387.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 387.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 300.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 382.
- ↑ Ibid, pgs. 382-383.
- ↑ Asimov's Science Fiction, September/October, 2017, Vol. 41 Nos. 9 & 10, pg. 100.
- ↑ Ibid. pg. 94-95.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 99.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 92-99.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 100.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 92-99.