|}James Charles Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) ruled as James VI, King of Scotland, and as James I, King of England and King of Ireland. He ascended the Scottish throne in 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary Queen of Scots. On 24 March 1603, as James I, he succeeded Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland, who died without issue. He then ruled the three kingdoms for 22 years, often using the title King of Great Britain, until his death at the age of 58.
Under James, the "Golden Age" of Elizabethan literature and drama continued. Some of William Shakespeare's more famous plays (most obviously Macbeth) were written with a Jacobean agenda. James' reign saw a new translation of the Bible into English, that affirmed the divine right of kings to rule.
King James VI ruled Scotland in the late 16th century. When England was conquered by Spain in 1588, Scotland maintained its independence and James maintained Scotland's throne.
Though his mother had been the Catholic martyr Mary Queen of Scots, James was himself a Protestant. He was wary of the militantly Catholic stance of the Spanish-backed Queen Isabella of England, and suspended the state visits which Scottish kings periodically made to London while she reigned, for fear of being imprisoned or killed. Thus, the Scottish embassy in London became a pleasure park for Spaniards in James' absence.
The first permanent English settlement in North America was named in honour of King James. Jamestown had a difficult start, as it was isolated from food and supplies, and was the target of the sims that lived in the area.
James' successor, Charles I, imposed the system of "Divine Right of Kings" upon England.