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Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran map
IranianRevolutionFlag.svg
Country
Continent: Asia
Capital: Tehran
National Language: Persian
Government: Unitary theocratic presidential republic
Status in OTL: Active

Iran, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran is a country in Western Asia. The name Iran has been in use natively and came into international use from 1935, before which the country was known internationally as Persia. The name Iran is a cognate of Aryan, and means "Land of the Aryans".

Iran is home to one of the world's oldest continuous major civilizations, with historical and urban settlements dating back to 7000 BC. The first Iranian dynasty formed during the Elamite kingdom in 2800 BC. The Iranian Medes unified Iran into an empire in 625 BC. They were succeeded by three Iranian Empires, the Achaemenids, Parthians and Sassanids, which governed Iran for more than 1000 years. Iranian post-Islamic dynasties and empires expanded the Persian language and culture throughout the Iranian plateau. Early Iranian dynasties which re-asserted Iranian independence included the Tahirids, Saffarids, Samanids and Buyids.

IranUnderShah(1907-1979)

Flag of Iran under the Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty, which is applicable in most Turtledove alternate histories.

The blossoming of Persian literature, philosophy, medicine, astronomy, mathematics and art became major elements of Muslim civilization and started with the Saffarids and Samanids. Iran was once again reunified as an independent state in 1501 by the Safavid dynasty—who promoted Twelver Shi'a Islam as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in the history of Islam. "Persia's Constitutional Revolution" established the nation's first parliament in 1906, within a constitutional monarchy. Iran officially became an Islamic republic on 1 April 1979, following the Iranian Revolution.

The political system of Iran, based on the 1979 Constitution, comprises several intricately connected governing bodies. The highest state authority is the Supreme Leader. Shia Islam is the official religion and Persian (Farsi) is the official language.

Literary commentEdit

In some Harry Turtledove timelines with a Point of Divergence after 1935, Iran has resumed its old name of Persia, without an explanation in the plot. For convenience, these examples are classed under Iran rather than Persia. Many timelines with PODs before then have Persia classed under the latter category.

Iran in Crosstime TrafficEdit

In the home timeline, Iran had seen the Shah restored in the 21st century, although this did little to stabilize the country. American and European troops had intervened in Iran in the middle decades of the century, which did not turn out the way the US and the EU wanted. Randolph Brooks was an American combat veteran who even years later had traumatic memories from a battle near the holy city of Qom. [1] In 2097, the Shah's secret police began another series of Ayatollah executions. The Prime Minister of the country was very nearly blown up in retaliation.

Iran in In the Presence of Mine EnemiesEdit

Persia was conquered by Germany during World War II. Iran became a member state of the Greater German Reich and was administrated by the Colonial Ministry.

Due to their Aryan ancestry, Persians were declared "Aryans" by the Institute for Racial Studies, and thus avoided the persecution suffered by other conquered races like the Arabs, Jews, Slavs and Africans. Persians were among the Reich's few groups of non-German subjects invited to study at German universities.

Iran in "The Last Article"Edit

After the surrender of both United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, the German Army launched an invasion of Iran in order to finally crush the Army of India. The British were defeated in Iran and forced back into India, allowing the Germans to add the country to the Reich in 1947.

Iran in "Ready for the Fatherland"Edit

By 1979, during the three-way cold war, Persia was in the Soviet sphere of influence.

Iran in SupervolcanoEdit

When the United States was weakened by the Yellowstone Supervolcano eruption, Iran took the opportunity to start a nuclear war against its traditional enemy Israel. Iran lost the opening stages of the war; while it managed to destroy Tel Aviv, Israel managed to destroy both Tehran and Qom in return. In the immediate aftermath these attacks, it was unknown whether Iran's President and Grand Ayatollah had survived.[2]

Iran in WorldwarEdit

During World War II, Iran had been invaded by a joint Anglo-Soviet task force in Operation Countenance, for the purpose of securing the Iranian Oil Fields, after its government proved too friendly to the Axis powers.

When the Race's Conquest Fleet landed in June 1942, Iran was spared the wrath of the Race's full military might thanks in part to the British in being able to hold the Race at bay in western India. In 1944, the Army of India was defeated and the Race was able to invade and conquer Iran. At the Peace of Cairo later that year, the country was recognized as a Race colony.[3]

Iran's arid desert climate made it desirable to the Race, but it was a restive province, with its Islamic majority in constant rebellion, and required heavy policing by veterans of the Conquest Fleet. Iranian Ruhollah Khomeini (ironically, operating out of nearby Iraq) was a thorn in the Race's side until his capture and exile to South America.

ReferencesEdit

  1. The Disunited States of America pg. 160, 278.
  2. Eruption, p. 325.
  3. See the Colonization map.

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