The foundation of Hungary was laid in the late 9th Century by the Magyar chieftain Arpad, whose great-grandson Stepehn was crowned in AD 1000. The Kingdom existed with interruptions for 946 years, and at various points was regarded as one of the cultural centers of the Western world. Part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the end of World War I, Hungary lost over two-thirds of its territory under the Treaty of Trianon, the terms of which have been considered humiliating by Hungarians. During World War II, anger over these concessions led Hungary to join the Axis, which ultimately led to its defeat in 1945. It fell under the influence of the Soviet Union from 1947–1989, during which Hungary gained widespread international attention regarding the Revolution of 1956 and the seminal move of opening its border with Austria in 1989, thus accelerating the collapse of the Eastern block. Since 1989, Hungary has been a parliamentary republic.
Hungary's role in the early days of the Second World War was peculiar. In 1938, under Admiral Miklos Horthy, Regent of the Kingdom, Hungary reclaimed territory from Czechoslovakia simultaneously with Germany's invasion. While Britain and France broke all diplomatic ties with Hungary, neither did they formally declare war on her. Hungary was not a formal ally of Germany until the "big switch" of 1940, when Germany was able to broker a peace with Britain and France. With this completed, Hungary joined Germany in the war against the Soviet Union.
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Hungary was a long-standing province of the Austrian Empire, which ruled it since the late 17th Century. Counting also the earlier 150 years which the Hungarians spent under Ottoman rule, by the late 20th Century it was nearly 500 years since Hungary had last been a sovereign state.
Dominated politically by Germany, Hungary was forced to join the Axis in 1941. Though small, Hungary was not conquered by the Race when the Conquest Fleet arrived on Earth in 1942.
Although Hungary did not have diplomatic relations with the Race and had not been invited to attend the peace conference convened in Cairo by Atvar, Hungary's independence was ensured when Joachim von Ribbentrop asserted that Hungary was under German protection.
Hungary contributed troops to the Polish Front of the Race-German War of 1965. Any thought it may have had the idea of making a separate peace with the Race ended abruptly when the Germans destroyed Bucharest to punish Romania for attempting to do the same.
The Magyars were a nomad people which for a time posed a serious threat to the Byzantine Empire. However, eventually the empire was able to block them and keep its Danube border inviolate. Afterwards, the Magyars were displaced by later arriving nomads and disappeared from history. Basil Argyros, who centuries later confronted the Jurchens - the latest in this series of nomad invaders - hoped that they would meet the same end as the Magyars.