Galatia (Greek: Γαλατία) was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia in modern Turkey. Galatia was named for the immigrant Gauls from Thrace, who settled here and became its ruling caste in the 3rd century BC, following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans in 279 BC. Galatia existed as a nation, with Ancyra as its capital, from 278 BC until 25 BC, when it was annexed by the Roman Empire. It has been called the "Gallia" of the East, writers calling its inhabitants Galli.
Galatia was later divided into the provinces of Galatia Prima and Galatia Secunda, which continued under the Byzantine Empire. The Galatians seem to have lost their cultural identity and become completely assimilated with the Greek-speaking Byzantines by about AD 700. The Galatian language, part of the Celtic family, is considered extinct.