With the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire from Spain in 1821, Mexico became an independent monarchy—the First Mexican Empire (1822–1823), ruled by Agustín I, of the House of Iturbide. The monarchy was replaced by the First Republic of Mexico. The Second Mexican Empire (1864–1867), ruled by Maximilian I, was established due to the efforts of Mexican Conservatives and the French government after the president, Benito Juárez, was forced into exile. The Second Empire had very little foreign support or recognition, and quickly collapsed after France withdrew its military aid.
Both Empires ended with the reigning Emperor being forcibly deposed and put to death in short order.
Maximilian I was installed, with French support, as Emperor of Mexico in 1864. The United States were entangled in the Second American Revolution and could not oppose this move. One of the first acts of Maximilian's government was to extend diplomatic recognition to the Confederate States, in the hope that this new nation would become a useful ally. After admitting failure to suppress the Revolution, the United States made a lukewarm attempt to assist Benito Juárez's republican insurgency, but their resources were soon diverted to the invasion of the Canadas. With French help, Maximilian's forces inflicted a number of defeats on Juárez in 1867. Maximilian's throne seemed reasonably secure by 1868.
The restoration of empire in Mexico and the installation of a new Emperor by France came concurrently with the USA's defeat in the War of Secession. From 1862, most of Mexico's northern border was shared with the Confederate States, an ally of France. The Confederate States recognized and Maximilian I's rule, and exploited the Hapsburg dynasty in Mexico, while the US were helpless to oppose it throughout the 19th Century and early 20th Century.
The Mexican Hapsburgs (unlike their Austro-Hungarian cousins) were firmly in the Entente camp throughout the Great War and the Second Great War. The 1920s saw an attempt at a revolution against the Hapsburgs, but the revolutionaries were defeated with covert help from the CS, despite some support from the US government. After Mexico was defeated during the Second Great War, the Empire was allowed to remain in place while the US focused its attention on the occupation and reintegration of the vanquished CSA.
The series gives very little specific information about the lives of the various emperors and their succession. The following list is based on the details provided in the series.
Maximilian II: reigned c 1880(?)-????. Maximilian II maintained the close ties between his country and France. In 1881, with his country in desperate need of money, Maximilian II decided to sell the Mexican provinces of Sonora and Chihuahua to the Confederate States, sparking the Second Mexican War.
Francisco José I (?)Edit
The emperor reigning during the Great War is never named in the text. As there is an Emperor Francisco José II during the Second Great War, the moderators of this Wiki have tentatively indentified the unnamed emperor as Francisco José I.
Maximilian III: reigned c 1920-1942. During the Mexican Civil War of the 1920s, the Popular Revolutionaries sought to remove Maximilian from the throne. The United States provided tepid support for the Popular Revolutionaries, whereas Maximilian's royalist faction received substantial (unofficial) support from long-time ally, the Confederate States. Maximilian held his throne, eventually passing it to Francisco José II.
Franciso José IIEdit
See: Francisco José II of Mexico: reigned 1942-end of series.
- ↑ The Guns of the South, pg. 229.
- ↑ Ibid. pg. 376.
- ↑ See Inconsistencies in Turtledove's Work#Inconsistencies in Southern Victory