Cleveland is a city in the state of Ohio and the county seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state. The municipality is located in northeastern Ohio on the southern shore of Lake Erie, approximately 60 miles west of the Pennsylvania border. As of the 2000 Census, the city proper had a total population of 478,403, and was then the 33rd largest city in the nation and the second largest city in Ohio.
On May 28, 1942, Cleveland saw a peace demonstration calling for an end to American involvement in World War II, and the impeachment and removal of PresidentFranklin D. Roosevelt. The demonstrators chanted "War! War! FDR! Now the President's gone too far!" Pro-Roosevelt counter-demonstrators attacked the pacifists with clubs, rocks, and bottles. The Cleveland Police, tasked to separate the two sides impartially, instead joined the side of the pro-war crowd and beat the demonstrators with clubs, then kicked the ones who were already down. One demonstrator said that this cruelty would only help the anti-war cause by revealing Roosevelt's brutal nature.