Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. They are discontinuously distributed from the Atlantic Ocean to the Siwa oasis, in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean Sea to the Niger River. They speak various Berber languages, which together form a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Between fourteen and twenty-five million Berber speakers live within this region, most densely in Morocco and becoming generally scarcer eastward through the rest of the Maghreb and beyond.
In the 14th century, the Great Black Deaths wiped out 80% of Europe's population. Muslim peoples, including the Berbers, were able to conquer much of Southern Europe. In what had been southern France, the Berbers founded the Kingdom of Berry, which remained strong at the close of the 21st century.