|United States of America|
|National Language:||English (de facto)|
|Status in OTL:||Active|
The United States of America (also known as the United States, the U.S., the USA, the States, and America) is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district.
The nation was founded by thirteen colonies of Britain located along the Atlantic seaboard of North America. On July 4, 1776, they issued the Declaration of Independence, which proclaimed their independence from Great Britain and their formation of a cooperative union. The rebellious states defeated Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War, the first successful colonial war of independence. A federal convention adopted the current United States Constitution on September 17, 1787; its ratification the following year made the states part of a single republic with a strong central government. The Bill of Rights, comprising ten constitutional amendments guaranteeing many fundamental civil rights and freedoms, was ratified in 1791.
In the 19th century, the United States acquired land from France, Spain, the United Kingdom, Mexico, and Russia, and annexed the Republic of Texas and the Republic of Hawaii. Disputes between the agrarian South and industrial North over states' rights and the expansion of the institution of slavery provoked the American Civil War of the 1860s. The North's victory prevented a permanent split of the country and led to the end of legal slavery in the United States. By the 1870s, the national economy was the world's largest. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a military power. In 1945, the United States emerged from World War II as the first country with nuclear weapons, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, and a founding member of NATO. The end of the Cold War left the United States as the sole superpower.
United States in A World of DifferenceEdit
The United States was one of two countries to send a manned ship to the planet Minerva. The other was its rival, the Soviet Union. Following the death of Frank Marquard, the US reluctantly supported the Omalo in the Skarmer-Omalo War. The Omalo emerged victorious, and the US developed very warm relations with Reatur, who suddenly found himself an extremely powerful domain-master.
United States in Crosstime TrafficEdit
There were several where the Confederate States had won the American Civil War and others where the United States had been conquered by the Axis. There was at least one where the United States had become a dictatorship.
In an alternate where nuclear weapons had never been developed, the United States and the Soviet Union fought World War VI in the 2090s. Conversely, there were several alternates where an atomic war took place in the 20th Century. Explorers from the home timeline found that in some of these alternates the USSR had started the war whereas in others, the US had fired the first shots. Some of these were in the process of getting back on their feet. Others were completely devoid of human life.
United States in Curious NotionsEdit
In the alternate designated by Crosstime Traffic as "3477", the United States remained neutral during World War I, and watched helplessly as Germany subdued Europe, solidifying its rule by the late 1930s. In 1956, Germany attacked and defeated the United States with atomic bombs. The United States remained under German rule for the next 150 years.
United States in The Disunited States of AmericaEdit
In one alternate visited by Crosstime Traffic, the United States failed when a conflict at the Constitutional Convention over the nature of representation could not be resolved or compromised. The Articles of Confederation were allowed to stand, and eventually all of the states became independent countries.
United States in The GladiatorEdit
In one alternate, the United States backed down during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962, allowing the Soviet Union to maintain missiles in Cuba. This decision signaled to the world that the United States was not as ardent about fighting the Cold War as it claimed. In 1968, the U.S. withdrew troops from the Vietnam War. In response, European communists and socialists established popular fronts, which gradually pushed European governments away from the US and towards the Soviet Union. By the 1970s, most of Europe was under communist rule.
The United States held out on its own until the end of the 20th century, when it too fell to communist rule. By the late 21st century, the United States was seen as harmless, and was completely obedient to the USSR.
United States in The Valley-Westside WarEdit
Following its devastating nuclear war with the Soviet Union in 1967, the territory of the United States was split up into countless mini-states and chaotic lawless areas. Just in the former city of Los Angeles there were several such states, jealous of their full sovereignty and occasionally going to war with each other. In most ways, people felt loyalty to their own state and regarded the inhabitants of other states carved from former US territory as "foreigners" and often as outright enemies. Still, many of these states continued celebrating the Fourth of July, expressing a vestigial feeling of being "Americans" and a remaining hostility towards the Russians - though most people had no real idea of where Russia was or what "Communism" was. There was also a hope that sooner or later the whole territory of the United States would be reunited, though nobody could guess when and how that would be effected. People in The Valley expressed the hope that one day a descendant of King Zev might achieve this task - but they had no real concept of how big the United States had been, having only a vague idea even about distant parts of what had been the State of California.
United States in Days of InfamyEdit
The United States had sought to remain neutral in the conflict that was quickly evolving into World War II. That ended in 1941, when, in response to Japan's aggression in China, the United States stopped selling oil and steel to Japan. Japan saw this as an act of aggression, as without these resources Japan's military machine would grind to a halt. In March, 1941, the Japanese government resolved to go to war with the United States. The first blow would be an attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, on the U.S. territory of Hawaii. However, at the insistence of Commander Minoru Genda and Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, that plan became an invasion of Hawaii.
The invasion began on December 7, 1941. U.S. forces, believing such an attack impossible while also presuming their inherent superiority, were surprised by the efficiency and skill Japanese forces demonstrated. The Japanese quickly gained dominance of the air and the sea, and U.S. ground forces were overwhelmed by the tenacity of the Japanese army. By February, 1942, U.S. forces surrendered.
For the remainder of 1942, U.S. policy was directed to regaining Hawaii, while also at war with Japan's ally, Germany. President Franklin D. Roosevelt wanted to pursue a "Germany first" policy in the war, but the loss of Hawaii, followed by Japan's air raid on San Francisco, forced the U.S. to focus its attention on the Pacific.
In June, 1942, the United States sent a fleet of three aircraft carriers and assorted troopships and destroyers to retake the islands. The Japanese navy met the Americans, sinking two of the carriers (the Saratoga and the Yorktown) and forcing a retreat. Embarassed, the United States continued its production of aircraft carriers. It was able to hurt Japan's supply lines via submarines and harrassed the islands with bombing raides.
In the wake of the failed invasion, the U.S. concentrated on a realistic plan for invading Hawaii, assembling an overwhelming force. In 1943, the United States returned, with a massive fleet, comprised of some 7 aircraft carriers, 5 light carriers, close to a dozen escort carriers, several destroyers, and troop carriers. This invasion proved to be the end of Japanese rule in Hawaii, as the Japanese naval contingent was destroyed, and the Japanese supplyline, already taxed, was broken completely. American forces landed at Oahu, and after a period of bitter fighting, were able to subdue Japan's ground forces.
The United States turned its attention to Midway, which was still in Japanese control.
United States in "Elder Skelter" Edit
The United States was in the throws of a generational crisis as Boomers retained the reigns of government in the face of Generation Xers and Wires. The Twenty-Eighth Amendment to the Constitution had been passed, which called for a balanced budget and restrained entitlement programs.
When Quebec invaded the Maritimes, the Maritimes called on the US to arbitrate a cease-fire and send peace-keepers. In a cabinet meeting, the president reazlied that the Twenty-Eighth Amendment limited her use of peace-keepers. She was also confronted by the generational anxiety of her younger cabinet members. The situation was made more difficult by the possibility that Quebec might next turn its attention to Maine if it wasn't stopped in the Maritimes.
United States in "Getting Real" Edit
Early in the 21st century China refused to continue to lend to The United States causing a severe economic downturn. The U.S. reacted poorly causing its problems to escalate so that by 2117 it was considered by the world an "economic basket case".
During this period, the U.S. government and its citizens refused to recognize their changed status and continued to act as though it were the premier superpower leading to further declines. China used this to its advantage and gained the U.S.'s former status. The U.S. also reacted militarily but had lost ground technologically as well so that its attacks were defeated. The resulting indemnities and loss of territory continued its decline.
United States in In the Presence of Mine EnemiesEdit
The United States remained neutral during the Second World War, watching as country after country fell in Europe and in Asia. After the war, the United States found itself in a growing cold war with the victorious Axis, particularly the Greater German Reich and the Empire of Japan, climaxing with the Third World War in the late 1960s. Germany was the first country to develop nuclear weapons, destroying Washington, DC and Philadelphia during the fighting. While the U.S. was able to counter-attack German soil, it was subdued by its enemies. During the war, America lost a third of its population.
After the war ended, the Reich genocided the Jewish and Negro populations in the United States with large massacres taking place in New York City and Los Angeles. Segments of the white American population assisted in these massacres.
With Washington, DC reduced to a nuclear wasteland, the American capital was moved to Omaha in the Mid West where a pro-Nazi American administration was established. The US paid an annual tribute, which became an important source of income for the Reich's economy. When the United States was either unable to pay this tribute or was late doing, the Wehrmacht, which maintained bases in New York, Chicago, St. Louis and Omaha itself, used terror tactics to bring the U.S. in line.
The American economy underwent hyperinflation following the war with the US Dollar fallen from its place as a major world currency.
In 2010, as part of the reforms promised by the fourth Führer Heinz Buckliger, Germany reduced the annual assessment by 13% (allowing the American economy to flow easier) and sent a division of occupation troops in the US back to the Reich (allowing the Americans to do more as they pleased with a lesser chance of being bullied and harassed by the occupation troops). Despite this, some Oberkommando der Wehrmacht officials like Heinrich Gimpel and Willi Dorsch assumed that the Americans would always try to find ways out of paying the annual tribute.
In 2011, the U.S. effectively defaulted. However, the Reich did not respond militarily as it had in the past. Nonetheless, the Wehrmacht was keen to keep the U.S. under heel, knowing full well that the U.S. could make a formidable opponent if it regained its freedom.
United States in "Joe Steele"Edit
The United States history of representative government came to an end upon the 1932 election of California congressman Joe Steele to the presidency, although it was years before anyone appreciated this. Steele quickly assumed greater power for the executive, colluding with J. Edgar Hoover to break the Supreme Court, purge the military, and keep the American people in a state of terror.
Although Steele guided the country through World War II and the Japanese War, his unprecedented 6 elections and assumption of absolute power broke the institutions of democracy. Upon Steele's death, Hoover assumed the presidency, and began a reign even more tyrannical than Steele's.
United States in "Les Mortes d'Arthur"Edit
The United States suffered a major disaster from which it had not recovered by the end of the twenty-second Century. This had left the country poor and its cities in ruins. A major export was Coca-Cola after the original formula was rediscovered in the ruins of Atlanta.
The US managed to be able to afford to send a team of one man and one woman to Mimas, a moon of Saturn, for the sixty-sixth Winter Olympic Games for the first time in four Olympiads. Private contributions raised the funds for two berths on the Arab World space ship Nasser. Given the team's lack of opportunity for low-g training, they were not expected to contend for any medals but the rest of the world was pleased to see them participating once more.
United States in "Must and Shall"Edit
The United States survived the Great Rebellion of 1861-1865, and the Southern Confederate states were kept in the Union. However, the United States government imposed a harsh and repressive peace upon the rebellious states. In 1942, the federal government stopped a Nazi-backed uprising. Many of the freedoms the Loyal States took for granted were denied the Southern states.
United States in "News From the Front"Edit
The United States was sharply divided after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. Almost immediately, the American press unleashed a continual stream of criticism of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's handling of World War II, often releasing strategic secrets in their efforts to demonstrate the president's incompetence. As his poll numbers fell, Roosevelt's position grew more vulnerable, and his honesty was called into question. By June, 1942, Roosevelt was on the verge becoming the second president ever to be impeached.
United States in Southern Victory Edit
United States in SupervolcanoEdit
In the second decade of the 21st Century, the United States became the center of one of history's greatest national disasters when the Yellowstone Supervolcano erupted.
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United States in The Guns of the SouthEdit
In 1861, under President Abraham Lincoln, the United States became involved in a civil war when eleven slaveholding Southern states opted to secede from the Union and form the Confederate States of America. Four years of warfare (what became known as the Second American Revolution) followed.
In 1864, the Confederacy's chances of victory were diminishing in the face several critical military defeats and the vast difference in industrial and human resources that favored the U.S. However, through the actions of a group of time-travelering members of the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging, a racist South African organization, the South was saved. The Rivingon men (as they came to be called) supplied Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia with AK-47 automatic rifles. These futuristic weapons more than made up for the Confederacy's lack of resources.
After several weeks of training, the Army of Northern Virginia engaged the Federal military at Bealeton, Virginia. The Federals were completely surprised by the new "repeaters", and quickly collapsed. In a news paper article of the time in the short battles in the Wilderness the federals suffered 40,000 losses. The ANV pressed on to Washington City, where President Abraham Lincoln had remained despite the encroaching enemy. When Lee and his army arrived, Lincoln invited the rebel commander into the White House to negotiate an armistice, ending major combat of the Second American Revolution.
The United States licked its wounds. Lincoln was voted out of office, although he was able to secure reasonably good terms for peace. One conflict was the status of Kentucky and Missouri, two slave-states. Under a compromise, both were allowed to decide which country they would join in a plebiscite. Missouri remained part of the United States, while Kentucky joined the Confederate States.
The United States was able reverse engineer AK-47s captured from Confederate troops. These guns were put into mass production. Although not quite as reliable as the Confederate models, the guns were nonetheless successful. By 1867, the United States had launched a war with Britain and an invasion of Canada.
No one in the U.S. ever learned the true origin of the AK-47.
United States in "The Last Article"Edit
The United States had remained neutral during World War II. This allowed the Germans to overrun all of Europe and the Japanese to run wild in Asia. By 1947, the Americans had realised their error of non-interference and were backing the Free French in Africa against the Nazi backed Vichy French. The Germans had also warned the Americans not to interfere with the Japanese empire in the Pacific.
Everyone believed that one day soon, the United States would be the next target of both the Germans and the Japanese.
United States in The Man With the Iron HeartEdit
Harry Truman had been suddenly thrust into the presidency when Franklin D. Roosevelt died in April, 1945. Truman was faced several difficult decisions. While the European theater of World War II was winding down, Japan had signalled its intention to fight to the bitter end. In actuality, the war in Europe erupted again almost immediately, as the German Freedom Front, under the leadership of Reinhard Heydrich, launched a resistance movement against the Allied forces occupying the country. The casualties inflicted against American troops began to wear away at public support for the occupation.
While Germany continued to simmer, the war against Japan continued at full boil. Shortly after taking office, Truman was informed of the development of the atomic bomb. Fearing the loss of life that could arise from the invasion of the Japanese home islands, Truman ordered the deployment of a bomb against the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki respectively in August, 1945. Japan immediately surrendered.
However, Germany was quietly deteriorating. Nearly 1000 American soldiers had been killed since the war officially ended (including General George Patton), and the U.S. Army seemed unable to stop the GFF. The mother of one of those killed, Diana McGraw, gathered together other people who'd lost loved ones, and began protesting the Truman Administration. December, 1945 proved to be a most difficult period for the country. The GFF destroyed the Palace of Justice in Nuremberg just as various Nazi officials were to go on trial for war crimes, and then issued a film featuring kidnapped private Matthew Cunningham pleading for the withdrawal of troops in exchange for his life. That film leaked to the American press by Tom Schmidt, a reporter in Germany. Dian McGraw's Mothers Against the Madness in Germany protested outside the White House. Her group was joined by various legislators, both Republicans and Democrats.
Witnessing the protest, Truman himself approached McGraw, and argued the threat that both the Nazis and the Soviet Union (America's former ally) posed to the peace. Unfortunately for him, Truman took far too condescending a tone, which helped shore up McGraw's own self-assurance that the lives lost were too a high a price. Nor could he dislodge her belief that the atomic bomb would be easily deployed should either Germany or the USSR become a threat.
Truman continued this line of argument publically throughout 1946. He dismissed the notion that McGraw's view was gaining momentum with the American people, and waived off the possibility that the Republicans would ride the issue to Congressional victory in the fall. He also asserted that foreign policy was set by the executive, and so scoffed angrily at the idea that Republican Congress could (much less would) order the troops home.
In 1946, American troops very nearly had their hands on Heydrich after the guerrilla leader personally oversaw the kidnapping of a group of German physicists from British custody. Tom Schmidt, now working for the Chicago Tribune, grew ever more critical of the Administration, dispensing with much civility.
With the actual war over, American policy now grew frosty to its allies, especially the Soviet Union, although this applied to France as well. Despite warnings from CIC officer Lou Weissberg, French authorities did not heed warnings that the German town of Hechingen would be a GFF target. The GFF was able to collected a quantity of radium that had been abandoned by the German scientists, and detonated it as part of a bomb in the American compound in Frankfurt. This attack came just as the Allies were making their second attempt to try German war criminals.
With these events as a spring-board, the Republicans were able to take back the House and the Senate in November, 1946. In the meantime, America's allies Britain and France were subjected to attacks by the GFF on their home soil. While Truman issued statements of solidarity, it did nothing to change the American voters' minds. The ascension of the Republicans emboldened American troops abroad. By January, 1947, draftees were actively protesting in the streets of occupied Germany, demanding to go home.
By February, 1947, Truman and Congress had already butted heads. Truman vetoed a budget that cut off funding for the occupation by the end of the year. While Congress did not have the votes to override the veto, this was at best a small victory for Truman, as Congress simply provided no funding to the occupation. Soon, the military began withdrawing troops for lack of funds. On July 4, 1947, Indianapolis City Councilman Gus van Slyke was assassinated at an anti-occupation rally. Within hours, Republican Congressman Everett Dirksen had whipped a protest rally in Washington, DC into a frenzy with the news. The crowd did not committ any acts of violence, although Tom Schmidt, who was covering the crowd, feared that it might storm the White House.
The U.S. suffered another set back days later when the GFF once again prevented the trials of several prominent Nazi leaders. This time, the trials were to be held in Berlin, and managed by the Soviet Union. However, a GFF Werewolf seized an American C-47 and crashed it into the courthouse. However, this event gave the USSR a black-eye, and inspired a new sense of cooperation. The NKVD turned over a DP named Shmuel Birnbaum, who'd been one of the slave-laborers who built Heydrich's hideout, to U.S. Army Howard Frank and Lou Weissberg. Reinhard Heydrich was finally located and killed, although the Administration's critics saw this as even greater reason to pull out troops, while Truman worried that killing Heydrich wasn't really the death of the GFF. This fear proved correct as Joachim Peiper soon picked up where Heydrich left off, launching a series of commericial airline hijackings.
In 1948, most of the United States troops in Germany had returned home, and the country hoped democracy and the atomic bomb would be enough to keep Germany in line.
United States in The Two GeorgesEdit
United States in The War That Came Early Edit
The United States maintained a policy of isolation and neutrality when a wider European war began over Czechoslovakia in 1938. However, individual Americans had flocked to the Spanish Republican banner in 1936 with the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War.
The United States did take steps to protect its interests in China during the Japanese invasion and occupation that began in 1937. However, as long as the Japanese directed their aggression at the Chinese, the US continued to supply Japan with oil and scrap metal, in effect tacitly supporting the Japanese war effort. Americans on the ground in China were not universally happy with this policy. After the sinking of the USS Panay in 1937, tensions between the countries were higher than normal. However, the Japanese confounded U.S. expectations by launching a war against the Soviet Union and an invasion of Siberia on April 1, 1938.
Earlier in 1939, the German submarine U-30 accidentally sank the American ship SS Athenia. The German government denied responsibility, and shifted the blame to Britain. The U.S. government did not at that point see the sinking of the Athenia as a grounds for declaring war (unlike its reaction to the sinking of the Lusitania in the First World War).
The U.S. maintained its neutrality throughout the remainder of 1939, although it did begin rearming that year in earnest. It also began supporting the war efforts of Britain and France.In the closing months of 1939, President Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed to broker an end to the fighting by returning the borders of Europe to the status quo ante bellum. His offer was rebuffed by Adolf Hitler.
Throughout 1940, the USA remained neutral. For the first half of the year, the U.S. continued its policy of aiding the Western Allies. However, in mid-1940, Britain and France made peace with Germany and joined Germany its war against the Soviet Union. In response, Roosevelt, who was running for an unprecedented third term, at speech in October, 1940 that the U.S. would no longer ship arms to Britain and France, and would additionally stop shipping scrap metal and oil to Japan until Japan left China. Roosevelt won re-electon weeks later.
While it apppeared the United States had a reprieve from the war, on January 12, 1941, Japanese forces attacked United States possessions, including the Philippines and Hawaii. The next day, Roosevelt asked for, and received, a declaration of war on Japan. Eight days later, Roosevelt was sworn in for a third time.
As Germany pointedly did not declare war on the U.S., the American military concentrated its efforts exclusively on the Pacific, where it worked in conjunction with Britain, France, and the Dutch forces located in the East Indies. However, as the war in Europe continued to tie up its allies resources, the U.S. carried most of the military burden.
Japan made the most its surprise attack. The Philippines finally fell, not long General Douglas MacArthur was killed during a Japanese bombing raid. Other territories, most notably Wake Island and Guam also fell. The Pacific fleet, under the command of Admiral Husband Kimmel, immediately moved to retake it. While Marines were successfully landed on Wake, the American Navy, expecting conventional ship-to-ship fighting seen at the Battle of Jutland,were beaten back by the Japanese fleet's superior air-power. Kimmel went down with his flag ship, the USS Arizona. The landed Marines were largely left behind as the Pacific fleet returned to Hawaii.
The American military and political establishment once again turned back to Europe early in 1941, when a coup in Britain overthrew the pro-German government of Prime Minister Sir Horace Wilson. The new government ended its war with the USSR and restarted its war against Germany. Roosevelt ordered the resumption of arms to Britain as a result. Germany responded by resuming unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic.
On the homefront, public opinion tottered for and against Roosevelt's prosecution of the war, with more than a few voices blaming Roosevelt for allowing the war to happen in the first place. There were those, however, who not only wanted the war against Japan fought until victory, but who were nervous about Germany, as well, notably Peggy Druce, a Pennsylvania woman who'd been stranded in Europe for the first two years of the war, and who traveled the state to give speeches warning of the threat Germany posed to the U.S. As a consequence of the war against Japan, Roosevelt ordered the internment of Japanese residents on the U.S. mainland.
The European situation grew murkier when France also pulled out of the war with the USSR.
Throughout the remainder of the year, the American navy regrouped and resupplied at Hawaii, with a special emphasis on building a fleet of fighter planes and aircraft carriers. As Winter, 1941 approached, a fleet including the USS Ranger (a carrier), the USS Boise, three destroyers and a heavy cruiser steamed out of Hawaii to once again meet the Japanese.
United States in "Vilcabamba"Edit
When the Krolp attacked Earth in the latter half of the 21st century, the United States lost much of its territory. It merged with Canada in an effort to pool resources and fight off the alien invaders. This plan failed, and the two countries were reduced to rump states along the Rocky Mountains, governed from Grand Junction, Colorado. U.S. President Harris Moffatt II negotiated the borders the country with Flargar, the Krolp governor of North America.
Generations later, during the presidency of Harris Moffatt III, the Krolp discovered vast silver deposits in Utah, in U.S. territory. Knowing that Krolp mining technology would leave even the rump U.S. uninhabitable, Moffatt decided to fight rather than allow the Krolp access. War did not begin immediately, however. Moffatt had plenty of opportunity to flee to Craig, Colorado, and initiate Plan Seventeen. While monitoring Krolp channels, Moffatt and his Defense Department learned that the Krolp Subgovernor of the South Central Region was taken to the hospital with an unknown illness (implicitly poisoned by one of the sympathetic humans in his staff). This soon spread to other Krolp officials and loyal humans, sometimes with fatal results. A Krolpish flyer went down, with more Krolp dead and injured. Bridges and overpasses also collapsed within Krolp territory.
In response, the Krolp began marching on the Rockies and Wasatch Range. Most of the USA's military power was centered around northeastern Utah, as a further deterent. After two days, the Krolp began to respond in earnest, after Govenror Vrank survived an assassination attempt. Grand Junction was destroyed. Almost immediately, Moffatt and his advisors moved further north, anticipating Craig would follow Grand Junction. By the third day, it was over; Krolpish forces earnestly began their drive into Utah, effectively routing all opposition, and mining shortly after taking the area. U.S. forces were overwhelmed and began surrendering in mass. Moffat was captured and forced into exile, the U.S. was defeated and ceased to exist, and the Krolp got their silver.
- ↑ The Gladiator, pg. 262.
- ↑ The Disunited States of America
- ↑ Gunpowder Empire, pg. 12.
- ↑ The Valley-Westside War, pg. 258
- ↑ The Gladiator, pg. 262.
- ↑ West and East, pg. 99.
- ↑ The Big Switch, pg. 334.
- ↑ West and East, pg. 358.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 238.
- ↑ Ibid., pgs. 336-338.
- ↑ Ibid., pgs. 345-346.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 396.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 402.
- ↑ Coup d'Etat, pg. 8.
- ↑ Ibid. pgs. 72-73.
- ↑ Ibid., pg 162.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 120.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 229.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 136.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 295.
- ↑ Ibid. pg. 154.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 208.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 207-208.
- ↑ Ibid, e.g., pgs. 207-208.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 184.
- ↑ Ibid., pgs. 388-391.
- ↑ Ibid., pg. 345.