Alfred Rosenberg (12 January 1893 – 16 October 1946) was a key member of the Nazi Party before and during its reign in Germany. Rosenberg was born to a German family in Estonia in the Russian Empire. Rosenberg was one the main authors of the Nazi ideology, including its racial "theory", persecution of the Jews, Lebensraum, abrogation of the Treaty of Versailles, and opposition to "degenerate" modern art. He was the leader of the foreign policy office of the NSDAP, 1933-1945, and Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories, 1941-1945. He was found guilty of crimes against humanity and war crimes at the Nuremberg Trials, and hanged.